Wisdom

Personification of wisdom (in Greek, "Σοφια") at the Celsus Library in Ephesos, Pavo. Archivo:AllegoryWisdomStrength.PNG Detail from the Allegory of Wisdom and Strength by Paolo Veronese (c. 1580). Wisdom, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is defined as the "1 un: Accumulated philosophic or scientific learning-knowledge; b: Ability to discern inner qualities and relationships-insight; c: Good sense-judgment d: Generally accepted belief 2: A wise attitude, belief, or course of action. 3: The teachings of the ancient wise men"[1]. Most psychologists regard wisdom as distinct from the cognitive abilities measured by standardized intelligence tests. Wisdom is often considered to be a trait that can be developed by experience, but not taught. When applied to practical matters, the term wisdom is synonymous with prudence. Some see wisdom as a quality that even a child, otherwise immature, may possess independent of experience or complete knowledge. The status of wisdom or prudence as a virtue is recognized in cultural, philosophical and religious sources. Some define wisdom in a utilitarian sense, as foreseeing consequences and acting to maximize the long-term common good.[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto] Como tal, en general, wisdom is looked at his/her ideals and principles that govern all actions and decisions. Applications of personal wisdom include one's ethical and social guidelines in life that determines one’s unique style of personality, the particular nature of short and long-term goal(s) pursued in life (spiritual or materialistic for example), perspective on life, social attitudes, etc. Contenido 1 Philosophical perspectives 2 Scientific perspectives 3 Psychological perspectives 4 Religious perspectives 5 Ver también 6 Referencias 7 Otras lecturas 8 External links Philosophical perspectives A standard philosophical definition says that wisdom consists of making the best use of available knowledge. As with any decision, a wise decision may be made with incomplete information[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto]. The technical philosophical term for the opposite of wisdom is folly.[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto] In his Metaphysics, Aristotle defines wisdom as knowledge of causes: why things exist in a particular fashion. In addition to experience there are a variety of other avenues to gaining wisdom. Por ejemplo, Freethinkers and others believe that wisdom may come from pure reason and perhaps experience, while others believe that it comes from intuition or spirituality.[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto] Beginning with the ancient Greeks, European culture associates wisdom with virtue. Metis and Athene are associated with wisdom from earliest times. Por ejemplo, many philosophers talk about the virtue of wisdom in relation to courage and moderation, and in the Roman Catholic church, sabiduría (Prudence) stands with justice, fortitude and moderation as one of the four cardinal virtues. Plato's dialogues mention the virtue of wisdom, as knowledge about the Good and the courage to act accordingly. The Good would be about the right relations between all that exists. The Good, as a Platonic Form, would involve the perfect ideas of good government, amor, friendship, comunidad, and a right relation to the Divine. Perhaps the search or love of wisdom is more important than any proven claim. Socrates only claimed to know that he did not know, but this he was very certain of, and he showed the many contradictions in the claims of his fellow citizens[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto]. Holists believe that wise people sense, work with and align themselves and others to life. En esta vista, wise people help others appreciate the fundamental interconnectedness of life[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto]. Thoreau believed that “it is a characteristic of wisdom not to do desperate things[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto].” Nicholas Maxwell, a modern philosopher, argued that the basic aim of academic inquiry ought to be to seek and promote wisdom — wisdom being construed to be the capacity to realize what is of value in life for oneself and others, wisdom thus including knowledge and technological know-how, but much else besides.[2] Scientific perspectives Some may find the scientific method[3] to be a satisfactory path to a goal of gaining wisdom. Psychological perspectives Psychologists have gathered data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom.[4] These analyses indicate that although "there is an overlap of the implicit theory of wisdom with intelligence, perceptiveness, spirituality and shrewdness, it is evident that wisdom is a distinct term and not a composite of other terms."[5] Personality theorist Erik Erikson related wisdom to the last stage of his eight-stage theory of psychosocial development. Erikson's theory spans the entire lifespan and frames each stage in the form of internally-generated questions or tensions. Erikson claimed that in the last stage of human development, from approximately 65 years to death, individuals must resolve a psychological conflict between integrity and despair. He proposed that attaining wisdom is a favorable resolution and product of this conflict. Strength here takes the form of that detached yet active concern with life bounded by death, which we call wisdom… Not that each man can evolve wisdom for himself… To whatever abyss ultimate concerns may lead individual men, man as a psychological creature will face, toward the end of his life, a new edition of the identity crisis which we may state by the words 'I am what survives me'.[6] Así, within Eriksonian theory, wisdom universally surfaces as an optimal potential outcome of the human experience. En los 1970s, Vivian Clayton pioneered the academic study of wisdom. Clayton "is generally recognized as the first psychologist to ask, in even faintly scientific terms, 'What does wisdom mean, and how does age affect it?'"[7] Clayton's work caught the attention of Paul Baltes, who later founded the Berlin Wisdom Project at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Alemania. Another wisdom researcher, sociologist Monika Ardelt, has developed a "Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale", a test that individuals can take for a numerical assessment of their wisdom on a scale of one to five. The number of academic publications about wisdom increased significantly from 1984 Para 2000. No obstante, according to Jacqui Smith, one of Baltes's collaborators, the subject is not completely accepted in academia.[8] Religious perspectives Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Wisdom Some religions have specific teachings relating to wisdom. In Mesopotamian Religion and Mythology Enki, also known as Ea, was the God of wisdom and intelligence. Wisdom was achieved by restoring balance. In Islam, according to the Qur'an Prophet Muhammed was chosen by God to represent his wisdom. The Prophet Muhammad said that: "Fearing God in your actions and intentions, and knowing that Almighty God is watching you wherever and whenever you are is the head/peak of wisdom"[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto]. Además, Islam also mentions that a wise man with the name of Luqman once told his son to: "Sit with the learned men and keep close to them. Allah gives life to the hearts with the light of wisdom as Allah gives life to the dead earth with the abundant rain of the sky"[1]. In the Christian Bible, the magi (o "sabios") are sent by God to give the newly born Jesus three types of gifts. Wisdom is also represented by the sense of justice of the lawful and wise king [Salomón, who asks God for wisdom in 1 Kings 3. Proverbs 9:10 says: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," y 8:13 "To fear the Lord is to hate evil;" There is an oppositional element in Christian thought between secular wisdom and Godly wisdom. The apostle Paul states that worldly wisdom thinks the claims of Christ to be foolishness. Sin embargo, to those who are being saved Christ represents the wisdom of God. (1 Corinthians 1:17-31) Además, Wisdom is one of the Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. The seventh verse of the first chapter of the Jewish Proverbs states "Fear of God is the beginning of Wisdom" (Proverbs 1:7). The beginning of fear of God is hating evil, the ways of evil, arrogance, pride and a duplicitous mouth (Proverbs). Confucius stated that wisdom can be learned by three methods: Reflection (the noblest), imitation (the easiest) and experience (the bitterest). According to "Doctrine of the Mean," Confucius also said, "Love of learning is akin to wisdom. To practice with vigor is akin to humanity. To know to be shameful is akin to courage (zhi,ren,yi..three of Mengzi's sprouts of virtue)." Compare this with the beginning of the Confucian classic "Great Learning" which begins with "The Way of learning to be great consists in manifesting the clear character, loving the people, and abiding in the highest good" one can clearly see the correlation with the Roman virtue "prudence," especially if one transliterates clear character as clear conscience. (Quotes from Chan's Sources of Chinese Philosophy). Buddha taught that a wise person is endowed with good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct & good mental conduct (AN3:2) and a wise person does actions that are unpleasant to do but give good results and doesn’t do actions that are pleasant to do but give bad results (AN4:115). This is called karma. The Buddha has much to say on the subject of wisdom including: He who arbitrates a case by force does not thereby become just (established in Dhamma). But the wise man is he who carefully discriminates between right and wrong.[9] He who leads others by nonviolence, righteously and equitably, is indeed a guardian of justice, wise and righteous.[10] One is not wise merely because he talks much. But he who is calm, free from hatred and fear, is verily called a wise man.[11] By quietude alone one does not become a sage (muni) if he is foolish and ignorant. But he who, as if holding a pair of scales, takes the good and shuns the evil, is a wise man; he is indeed a muni by that very reason. He who understands both good and evil as they really are, is called a true sage.[12] In Taoism Practical Wisdom may be described as knowing what to say and when to say it. See also Intelligence Judgement Knowledge Knowledge level Philosophy Regret The Wisdom of Crowds Theosophy (regarded by followers as the "Wisdom Religion") Wisdom literature Virtue References ↑ Wisdom, Merriam-Webſter. ↑ MAXWELL, Nicholas. ↑ William Stanley Jevons (1873, 1877) The Principles of Science: a treatise on logic and scientific method Dover edition, with a new preface by Ernest Nagel (1958) ↑ Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. Revista de Personalidad y Psicología Social, 49, 607–62. ↑ Marrón, S. C., & Greene, J. Un. (2006). The Wisdom Development Scale: Translating the conceptual to the concrete. Revista de desarrollo de estudiantes universitarios, 47, 1–19. ↑ Erikson, E. (1968). Identidad: Youth and crisis (páginas. 140–41). Nueva York: Norton. ↑ Salón, Stephen S. (Mayo 6, 2007), "The Older-and-Wiser Hypothesis", The New York Times Magazine: 61, HTTP://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/06/magazine/06Wisdom-t.html?ex=1336104000&en=4b4959cf047f61fe&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss ↑ Hall, Stephen S. (Mayo 6, 2007), "The Older-and-Wiser Hypothesis", The New York Times Magazine: 62, HTTP://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/06/magazine/06Wisdom-t.html?ex=1336104000&en=4b4959cf047f61fe&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss ↑ Dhammapada v.256 ↑ Dhammapada v.257 ↑ Dhammapada v.258 ↑ Dhammapada v.268-9 Further reading Abeles, N. (2007). Ética, sabiduría, and common sense: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 52 (38), 2007. Absey, J. (2005). Review of Wisdom in the body: The craniosacral approach to essential health: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 20(2) Victoria 2005, 177-179. Absey, J. (2006). Review of Wisdom in the Body: The Craniosacral Approach to Essential Health: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 21(1) Fal 2006, 96-99. Address, R. F. (2005). Review of Getting home before dark: Stories of wisdom for all ages: Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging Vol 18(1) 2005, 98-100. Allen, C. N. (1935). Wish and Wisdom; Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief: El Diario de Psicología Social y Anormal vol. 30(3) Oct 1935, 397-398. Allen, J. G. (2004). Review of The wisdom in feeling: Psychological processes in emotional intelligence: Boletín de la Clínica Menninger Vol. 68(3) Suma 2004, 260. Allison, E. T. (2007). Wisdom and loss: The role of life loss in the lives of nurses thought to be wise. Resúmenes de tesis internacional Sección A: Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Ambrosius, M. (2002). Wisdom: A positive aspect of aging. Resúmenes de disertación internacional: Sección B: Las Ciencias y la Ingeniería. Anderson, B. J. (1999). Development of wisdom-related knowledge in adolescence and young adulthood. Resúmenes de disertación internacional: Sección B: Las Ciencias y la Ingeniería. Anderson, D. D. (1992). Questioning the conventional wisdom and critiquing unconventional perspectives in abnormal psychology: A written exercise: Teaching of Psychology Vol 19(4) Dic 1992, 230-232. Ardelt, M. (1995). Wisdom in the later years: A life course approach to successful aging. Resúmenes de tesis internacional Sección A: Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Ardelt, M. (1997). Wisdom and life satisfaction in old age: Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences Vol 52B(1) Ene 1997, P15-P27. Ardelt, M. (2000). Antecedents and effects of wisdom in old age: A longitudinal perspective on aging well: Research on Aging Vol 22(4) Jul 2000, 360-394. Ardelt, M. (2000). Intellectual versus wisdom-related knowledge: The case for a different kind of learning in the later years of life: Educational Gerontology Vol 26(8) Dic 2000, 771-789. Ardelt, M. (2003). Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale: Research on Aging Vol 25(3) Mayo 2003, 275-324. Ardelt, M. (2004). Where Can Wisdom Be Found? A Reply to the Commentaries by Baltes and Kunzmann, Sternberg, and Achenbaum: Desarrollo Humano Vol. 47(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 304-307. Ardelt, M. (2004). Wisdom as Expert Knowledge System: A Critical Review of a Contemporary Operationalization of an Ancient Concept: Desarrollo Humano Vol. 47(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 257-285. Ardelt, M. (2008). Wisdom, religiosity, purpose in life, and death attitudes of aging adults: Tomer, Adrian (Ed); Eliason, Grafton T (Ed); Wong, Paul T P (Ed). Ardelt, M.; Oh, H. (2010) Wisdom: Definición, evaluación, and relation to successful cognitive and emotional aging. In Depp, Colin A [Ed]; Jeste, Dilip V [Ed]. (2010). Successful cognitive and emotional aging. (páginas. 87-113). xxi, 419 páginas. Arlington, Virginia, NOS: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; NOS. Arnkil, T. E. (2006). Comentario: On Wisdom: Vol. Proceso Familiar 45(1) Estropear 2006, 133-137. Askenazi-Gerson, J. (1992). On a word of wisdom: Psychanalyse a l'Universite Vol 17(67) Jul 1992, 61-64. Aslan, Un. (2005). Wisdom As a Subject of Psychological Studies: Turk Psikoloji Yazilari Vol 8(15) Jun 2005, 1-9. Assmann, Un. (1994). Wholesome knowledge: Concepts of wisdom in a historical and cross-cultural perspective. Hillsdale, NJ, Inglaterra: Lawrence Erlbaum Asociados, Inc. Aubrey, R., & Cohen, P. M. (1995). Working wisdom: Timeless skills and vanguard strategies for learning organizations. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bajo. Averbeck, R. E. (2006). Creation and Corruption, Redemption and Wisdom: A Biblical Theology Foundation for Counseling Psychology: Journal of Psychology and Christianity Vol 25(2) Suma 2006, 111-126. Baer, S. M., Hoffamann, Un. C., & Sheikh, Un. Un. (2003). Healing images: Connecting with inner wisdom. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co. Baltes, P. B., & Freund, Un. M. (2003). Human strengths as the orchestration of wisdom and selective optimization with compensation. Washington, DC: Asociación Americana de Psicología. Baltes, P. B., & Freund, Un. M. (2003). The intermarriage of wisdom and selective optimization with compensation: Two meta-heuristics guiding the conduct of life. Washington, DC: Asociación Americana de Psicología. Baltes, P. B., Gluck, J., & Kunzmann, tu. (2002). Wisdom: Its structure and function in regulating successful life span development. Nueva York, NY: Oxford University Press. Baltes, P. B., & Kunzmann, tu. (2003). Wisdom: The Psychologist Vol 16(3) Estropear 2003, 131-133. Baltes, P. B., & Kunzmann, tu. (2004). The Two Faces of Wisdom: Wisdom as a General Theory of Knowledge and Judgment about Excellence in Mind and Virtue vs. Wisdom as Everyday Realization in People and Products: Desarrollo Humano Vol. 47(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 290-299. Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (1990). 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(2007). Forms and functions of wisdom in real-life contexts: Chinese Journal of Psychology Vol 49(2) Jun 2007, 185-204. Young-Eisendrath, PAGS., & Miller, M. E. (2000). The psychology of mature spirituality: Integrity, sabiduría, transcendence. Nueva York, NY: Brunner-Routledge. Zed, E. C. (2003). Helpful symbols in fairy tales: A storytelling group employing ancient wisdom to treat depression at midlife. Resúmenes de disertación internacional: Sección B: Las Ciencias y la Ingeniería. External links Wisdom Lexicon Project Living Wisdom — A Research Paper about Wisdom Atlas of Wisdom: Wisdom in Psychology and Spirituality Where is the Wisdom We have Lost in Knowledge? Wisdom: The Interval Between the Notes From Knowledge to Wisdom Book on Wisdom from psychologist Paul Baltes Wisdom in Perspective This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

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