surco (neuroanatomía)

Archivo:Gyrus sulcus.png Gyrus and sulcus. Gray's Fig. 726– Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. Gray's Fig. 727 - Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. File:Lateral sulcus.gif Rotating image of human brain, illustrating the Lateral sulcus In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (latín: "furrow", pl. sulci) is a depression or fissure in the surface of the brain. It surrounds the gyri, creating the characteristic appearance of the brain in humans and other large mammals. Large furrows (sulci) that divide the brain into lobes are often called fissures. The large furrow that divides the two hemispheresthe interhemispheric fissureis very rarely called a "sulcus".  Contenido 1 variación individual 2 Gyrification across species 3 Brain development 4 Notable sulci 4.1 Macaque 5 Ver también 6 Referencias 7 External links Individual variation The sulcal pattern varies between human individuals, and the most elaborate overview on this variation is probably an atlas by Ono, Kubick and Abernathey: Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci.[1] Some of the larger sulci are, sin embargo, seen across individuals - and even species - so it is possible to establish a nomenclature. Gyrification across species The variation in the amount of fissures in the brain (gyrification) between species is related to the size of the animal and the size of the brain. Mammals that have smooth-surfaced or nonconvoluted brains are called lissencephalics and those that have folded or convoluted brains gyrencephalics.[2][3] The division between the two groups occurs when cortical surface area is about 10 cm2 and the brain has a volume of 3–4 cm3. Large rodents such as beavers (40 Libras (Plantilla:Convert/LoffAonSoff)Plantilla:Convert/test/A) and capybaras (150 Libras (Plantilla:Convert/LoffAonSoff)Plantilla:Convert/test/A) are gyrencephalic and smaller rodents such as rats and mice lissencephalic.[4] Brain development In humans, cerebral convolutions appear at about 5 months and take at least into the first year after birth to fully develop.[2][3][5] It has been found that the width of cortical sulci not only increases with age [6], but also with cognitive decline in the elderly. [7] Notable sulci Calcarine sulcus Central sulcus Central sulcus of insula Cingulate sulcus Circular sulcus of insula Collateral sulcus Fimbrodentate sulcus Hippocampal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus Inferior temporal sulcus Intermammary sulcus Intraparietal sulcus Lateral sulcus Lunate sulcus Occipitotemporal sulcus Olfactory sulcus Paracentral sulcus Parieto-occipital sulcus Postcentral sulcus Precentral sulcus Rhinal sulcus Subparietal sulcus Sulcus of corpus callosum Superior frontal sulcus Superior temporal sulcus Transverse occipital sulcus Transverse temporal sulcus Macaque A macaque has a more simple sulcal pattern. In a monograph Bonin and Bailey list the following as the primary sulci[8]: fisura calcarina (California) Central sulcus (ce) Sulcus cinguli (ci) Hippocampal fissure (h) Sulcus intraparitalis (ip) Lateral fissure (or Sylvian fissure) (la) Sulcus olfactorius (olf) Medial parieto-occipital fissure (pom) fissura rhinalis (rh) Sulcus temporalis superior (ts) - this sulcus runs parallel to the lateral fissure and extends to the temporal pole and often superficially merges with it. See also Sulcus (anatomy) Referencias ↑ Ono, Kubick, Abernathey, Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci, Thieme Medical Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-86577-362-9. ISBN 3-13-732101-8. ↑ Jump up to: 2.0 2.1 Hofman MA. (1985). Size and shape of the cerebral cortex in mammals. Yo. The cortical surface. Brain Behav Evol. 27(1):28-40. PMID 3836731 ↑ Jump up to: 3.0 3.1 Hofman MA. (1989).On the evolution and geometry of the brain in mammals. Prog Neurobiol.32(2):137-58. PMID 2645619 ↑ Martin I. Sereno, Roger B. H. Tootell, "From Monkeys to humans: what do we now know about brain homologies," Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15:135-144, (2005). ↑ Caviness VS Jr. (1975). Mechanical model of brain convolutional development. Ciencia. 189(4196):18-21. PMID 1135626 ↑ Tao Liu, Wei Wen, Wanlin Zhu, Julian Trollor, Simone Reppermund, John Crawford, Jesse S Jin, Suhuai Luo, Henry Brodaty, Perminder Sachdev (2010) The effects of age and sex on cortical sulci in the elderly. Neuroimage 51:1. 19-27 Mayo. PMID 20156569 ↑ Tao Liu, Wei Wen, Wanlin Zhu, Nicole A Kochan, Julian N Trollor, Simone Reppermund, Jesse S Jin, Suhuai Luo, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev (2011) The relationship between cortical sulcal variability and cognitive performance in the elderly. Neuroimage 56:3. 865-873 Jun. PMID 21397704 ↑ Gerhardt von Bonin, Percival Bailey, The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta, The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1947 External links Visual explanation of gyri, sulci, and fissures v·d·e Human brain: forebrain (telencéfalo· corteza cerebral· hemisferios cerebrales, grey matter) (TA A14.1.09.002–240, 301–320, GA 9.818–826) Frontal lobe Superolateral Prefrontal Superior frontal gyrus (4yo, 6yo, 8yo) · Giro frontal medio (9yo, 10yo, 46) Giro frontal inferior: 11yo· 47-Pars orbitalis· área de Broca (44-Pars opercularis, 45-Pars triangularis) Superior frontal sulcus· Inferior frontal sulcus Precentral Precentral gyrus· Precentral sulcus Medial/inferior Prefrontal Superior frontal gyrus (4metro, 6metro) · Medial frontal gyrus (8metro, 9metro) Paraterminal gyrus/Paraolfactory area (12) · Straight gyrus (11metro) · Orbital gyri/Orbitofrontal cortex (10metro, 11metro, 12) · Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (10metro) · Subcallosal area (25) Olfactory sulcus· Orbital sulci Precentral Paracentral lobule (4) · Paracentral sulcus Both Primary motor cortex (4) · corteza premotora (6) · Supplementary motor area (6) · Frontal eye fields (8) Parietal lobe Superolateral Superior parietal lobule (5yo, 7yo) · Lóbulo parietal inferior (40-Supramarginal gyrus, 39-Angular gyrus) · Parietal operculum (43) Intraparietal sulcus Medial/inferior Paracentral lobule (1metro, 2metro, 3metro, 5metro) · Precuneus (7metro) Marginal sulcus Both Postcentral gyrus/primary somatosensory cortex (1 · 2 · 3) · Secondary somatosensory cortex (5) · Posterior parietal cortex (7) Occipital lobe Superolateral Occipital pole of cerebrum· Lateral occipital gyrus (18, 19) · Lunate sulcus· Transverse occipital sulcus Medial/inferior Primary visual cortex (17) · Cuneus· Lingual gyrus Calcarine fissure Temporal lobe Superolateral Transverse temporal gyrus/Primary auditory cortex (41, 42) · Superior temporal gyrus (38, 22/el área de Wernicke) · Middle temporal gyrus (21) · Inferior temporal gyrus (20) Superior temporal sulcus· Inferior temporal sulcus Medial/inferior Fusiform gyrus (37) Medial temporal lobe (27 · 28 · 34 · 35 · 36) Inferior temporal sulcus Interlobar sulci/fissures Superolateral Central (frontal+parietal) · Lateral (frontal+parietal+temporal) · Parieto-occipital· Preoccipital notch Medial/inferior Medial longitudinal· Cingulate (frontal+cingulate) · Collateral (temporal+occipital) · Callosal sulcus Limbic lobe Parahippocampal gyrus anterior (Entorhinal cortex, Perirhinal cortex) · Posterior parahippocampal gyrus· Prepyriform area Cingulate cortex/gyrus Subgenual area (25) · Anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33) · Posterior cingulate (23, 31) Isthmus of cingulate gyrus: Retrosplenial cortex (26, 29, 30) Hippocampal formation Hippocampal sulcus· Fimbria of hippocampus· Giro dentado· Rhinal sulcus Other Supracallosal gyrus· Uncus Insular lobe Long gyrus of insula· Short gyri of insula· Circular sulcus of insula General Operculum· Poles of cerebral hemispheres Some categorizations are approximations, y algunas áreas de Brodmann abarcan giroscopios. [. v]·[. d]·[. e] M: CNS anat (n/s/m/p/4/e/b/d/c/a/f/l/g)/phys/devp noco (m/d/e/h/v/s)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, droga (N1A/2AB/C/3/4/7A/B/C/D) Esta página utiliza contenido con licencia Creative Commons de Wikipedia (ver autores).

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