Subthalamic nucleus

Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus of the basal ganglia. As the name suggests, the subthalmic nucleus (STN) is located ventral to the thalamus, just superior to the internal capsule. The subthalamic nucleus utilizes the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and forms a tight regulatory loop with the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) called the STN-GPe network. Reciprocally connected regions of the subthalamic nucleus and the external segment of the globus pallidus project to similar regions of the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra (pars reticulata). This network is thought to play a key role in the generation of the patterns of activity seen in Parkinson's disease. The basal ganglia are predominantly GABAergic (containing the neurotransmitter GABA). Although the dopaminergic (containing dopamine) cells of the substantia nigra are neuromodulatory, the subthalamic nucleus is the only excitatory nucleus of the basal ganglia. It is therefore called the 'driving force' of the basal ganglia. Unilateral destruction of the subthalamic nucleus produces hemiballismus. See also Hemiballismus Deep brain stimulation Jules Bernard Luys External links Template:MeSH v·d·e Human brain: diencephalon (TA A14.1.08, Georgia 9.807) Epithalamus Surface Pineal body · Habenula · Habenular trigone · Habenular commissure Grey matter Pretectal area · Habenular nuclei · Subcommissural organ Thalamus Surface Stria medullaris of thalamus · Thalamic reticular nucleus · Taenia thalami Grey matter/ nuclei paired: AN · Ventral (VA/VL, VP/VPM/VPL) · Lateral (LD, LP, Pulvinar) · Metathalamus (MG, LG) midline: MD · Intralaminar (Centromedian) · Midline nuclear group · Interthalamic adhesion White matter Mammillothalamic fasciculus · Pallidothalamic tracts (Ansa lenticularis, Lenticular fasciculus, Thalamic fasciculus) · PCML (Medial lemniscus, Trigeminal lemniscus) · Spinothalamic tract · Lateral lemniscus · Dentatothalamic tract · Acoustic radiation · Optic radiation · Subthalamic fasciculus · Anterior trigeminothalamic tract Medullary laminae Hypothalamus Surface Median eminence/Tuber cinereum · Mammillary body · Infundibulum Grey matter Autonomic zones Anterior (parasympathetic/heat loss) · Posterior (sympathetic/heat conservation) Endocrine posterior pituitary: magnocellular/Paraventricular/Supraoptic (oxytocin/vasopressin) otro: parvocellular/Arcuate (dopamine/GHRH) · Preoptic (GnRH) · Suprachiasmatic (melatonin) Emotion Lateral (hunger) · Ventromedial (satiety) · Dorsomedial (rage) White matter afferent (SN → Medial forebrain bundle) · efferent (Mammillothalamic fasciculus → AN, Stria terminalis → Amygdala, Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus → SC) Pituitary Posterior is diencephalon, but anterior is glandular Subthalamus Subthalamic nucleus · Zona incerta Ventricular system: Third ventricle recesses: (Optic recess, Infundibular recess, Suprapineal recess, Pineal recess) Hypothalamic sulcus · Tela chorioidea of third ventricle Subfornical organ Apertures: Interventricular/Monro Posterior commissure This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

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