Special needs

· Special needs is a term used in clinical diagnostic and functional development to describe individuals who require assistance for disabilities such as medical, mental, or psychological. For instance, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition both give guidelines for clinical diagnosis. Autism, Down syndrome, developmental delays, blindness, and cystic fibrosis are examples of special needs. More narrowly, it is a legal term applying in foster care in the United States, derived from the language in the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. It is a diagnosis used to classify children as needing "more" services than those children without special needs who are in the foster care system. It is a diagnosis based on behavior, childhood and family history, and is usually made by a health care professional. Contents 1 See also 2 References 3 Further reading 3.1 Books 3.2 Papers 4 Dissertations See also Early intervention Developmentally disabled Mainstreaming Needs Needs in operation: Support for Learning Vol 16(4) Nov 2001, 156-161. Norwich, B., & Kelly, N. (2006). Evaluating Children's Participation in SEN Procedures: Lessons for educational psychologists: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 22(3) Sep 2006, 255-271. Norwich, B., & Kent, T. (2002). Assessing the personal and social development of pupils with special educational needs: Wider lessons for all: Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice Vol 9(1) Mar 2002, 59-80. Novick, R. (1993). Activity-based intervention and developmentally appropriate practice: Points of convergence: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education Vol 13(4) Win 1993, 403-417. Obani, T., & Visser, J. (1998). Integration/mainstreaming a pragmatic approach for Nigeria: IFE Psychologia: An International Journal Vol 6(2) 1998, 81-93. Oberski, I. (2003). A Goethean way of seeing inclusively? : European Journal of Special Needs Education Vol 18(3) Oct 2003, 333-340. Obiakor, F. E. (2002). Developing self-empowerment in African American learners with special problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Obiakor, F. E., & Algozzine, B. (1994). Self-concept of young children with special needs: Perspectives for school and clinic: Canadian Journal of School Psychology Vol 10(2) Fal 1994, 123-130. O'Brien, A. M. (2005). Entering adulthood with special needs: Mothers' perceptions of their sons with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome or mental illness. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. O'Brien, T. (1998). The millennium curriculum: Confronting the issues and proposing solutions: Support for Learning Vol 13(4) Nov 1998, 147-152. O'Connor, R. E. (1995). Elementary-school programs. New York, NY: Elsevier Science. O'Connor, R. E., White, A., & Swanson, H. L. (2007). 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