· Schizophrenia ICD-10 F20 ICD-9 295 OMIM {{{OMIM}}} EnfermedadesDB {{{EnfermedadesDB}}} Medline Plus {{{Medline Plus}}} eMedicina {{{eMedicineSubj}}}/{{{eMedicineTema}}} Malla {{{Número de malla}}} Esquizofrenia (from the Greek word σχιζοφρένεια, or shjzofre'neja, sentido "split mind") is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder or a psychotic disorder, characterized by impairments in the perception or expression of reality and by significant social or occupational dysfunction. A person experiencing schizophrenia is typically characterized as demonstrating disorganized thinking, and as experiencing delusions or hallucinations, in particular auditory hallucinations.[1] Although the disorder is primarily thought to affect cognition, it can also contribute to chronic problems with behavior, interpersonal relationships, and emotion. Due to the many possible combinations of symptoms, a debate is ongoing about whether the diagnosis necessarily or adequately describes a disorder, or alternatively whether it might represent a number of disorders. Por esta razón, Eugen Bleuler deliberately called the disease "the schizophrenias" plural, when he coined the present name. Diagnosis is based on the self-reported experiences of the patient, in combination with secondary signs observed by a psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, Social Worker, or other mental health professional. No laboratory test for schizophrenia exists. Studies suggest that genetics, early environment, neurobiology and psychological and social processes are important contributory factors. Current research into the development of the disorder often focuses on the role of neurobiology, although a reliable and identifiable organic cause has not been found. In the absence of a confirmed specific pathology underlying the diagnosis, some question the legitimacy of schizophrenia's status as a disease. Además, some propose that the perceptions and feelings involved are meaningful and do not necessarily involve impairment. The term schizophrenia translates roughly as "splitting of the mind", and comes from the Greek σχίζω (or schizo, "to split" o "to divide") y φρήν (or phrēn, "mind"). Despite its etymology, schizophrenia is not synonymous with dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder or "split personality"; in popular culture the two are often confused. People with schizophrenia are generally not more violent or dangerous than other members of the population. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are highly likely to be diagnosed with other disorders. The lifetime prevalence of substance abuse is typically around 40%. Comorbidity is also high with clinical depression, anxiety disorders, and social problems, and a generally decreased life expectancy is also present. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia typically live ten to twelve years less than those without the disorder, owing to increased physical health problems and a high suicide rate. Unemployment and poverty are common. [2] Contenido 1 History of the disorder 2 Problems with the concept and the validity of the term schizophrenia 3 Evolutionary factors in schizophrenia 4 Related articles 5 Other terms 6 Ver también 6.1 Journals 7 Referencias 8 Notas 9 General reading 10 Otras lecturas 11 Enlaces externos 11.1 Critical approaches to schizophrenia 11.2 Critical approaches to schizophrenia (from non-Scientologist sources) 11.3 Noticia, information and further description History of the disorder A nonspecific concept of "madness" has been identified in antiquity, but schizophrenia was only classified as a distinct mental disorder by Kraepelin in 1887. He was the first to make a distinction between schizophrenia and manic depression and named it Dementia praecox . The term schizophrenia is derived from the Greek words 'schizo' (partir) and 'phren' (mind) and was coined by Eugene Bleuler to refer to the lack of interaction between thought processes and perception.He suggested the name schizophrenia, as it was obvious that Kraepelin's name was misleading. The word "praecox" implied precocious or early onset, hence premature dementia, as opposed to senile dementia from old age. Bleuler realized the illness was not a dementia, as it did not lead to mental deterioration. Bastante, schizophrenia led to a sharpening of the senses and a greater awareness of memories and experiences. Main article: Esquizofrenia: History of the disorder Problems with the concept and the validity of the term schizophrenia However, there has been an increasing acknowledgement of the methodological weaknesses, poor prognostic power, symptomatic variability and general weaknesses inherent in the diagnostic validity of the term 'Schizophrenia', the psychological literature has increasingly tended to focus on specific or discrete symptoms or aspects associated with it (Bentall, 1990).  Artículo principal: Esquizofrenia - Definition problem Evolutionary factors in schizophrenia Main article: Esquizofrenia - Evolutionary factors Related articles Main article: Esquizofrenia - Diagnosis Main article: Esquizofrenia - Biological factors Main article: Esquizofrenia - Genetic factors Main article: Esquizofrenia - Environmental factors Main article: Esquizofrenia - Children Main article: Esquizofrenia - Developmental factors Main article: Esquizofrenia - Cognitive features Main article: Esquizofrenia - Theoretical approaches Main article: Esquizofrenia - Course of the condition Main article: Esquizofrenia - Epidemiología. Artículo principal: Esquizofrenia - Factores de riesgo. Artículo principal: Esquizofrenia - Etiología. Artículo principal: Esquizofrenia - Service planning and care pathways Main article: Esquizofrenia - . Cambridge, MAMÁ: Prensa de la Universidad de Harvard. ISBN 0674006194 Nota 27: Konradi C, Heckers S. (2003) Molecular aspects of glutamate dysregulation: implications for schizophrenia and its treatment. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 97(2), 153-79. Nota 28: Coyle JT, Tsai G, Goff D. (2003) Converging evidence of NMDA receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1003, 318-27. Nota 29: Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Husband J, Kreel L. (1976) Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lanceta, 30;2 (7992), 924-6. Nota 30: Flashman LA, Green MF (2004) Review of cognition and brain structure in schizophrenia: profiles, longitudinal course, and effects of treatment. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 27 (1), 1-18, vii. Nota 31: Verde, M.F. (2001) Schizophrenia Revealed: From Neurons to Social Interactions. Nueva York: W. W.. Norton. ISBN 0393703347 Nota 32: Spencer KM, Nestor PG, Perlmutter R, Niznikiewicz MA, Klump MC, Frumin M, Shenton ME, McCarley (2004) Neural synchrony indexes disordered perception and cognition in schizophrenia. Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias, 101, 17288-93. (full text) Nota 33: Lewis DA, Hashimoto T, Volk DW (2005) Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 312-324. Nota 34: Goldner EM, Hsu L, Waraich P, Somers JM (2002) Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: a systematic review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47(9), 833–43. Nota 35: Ustun TB, Rehm J, Chatterji S, Saxena S, Trotter R, Room R, Bickenbach J, and the WHO/NIH Joint Project CAR Study Group (1999). Multiple-informant ranking of the disabling effects of different health conditions in 14 Países. Lanceta, 354(9173), 111–115. Nota 36: Leucht S, Wahlbeck K, Hamann J, Kissling W. (2003) New generation antipsychotics versus low-potency conventional antipsychotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lanceta, 361(9369), 1581-9. Nota 37: Potkin SG, Saha AR, Kujawa MJ, Carson WH, Ali M, Stock E, Stringfellow J, Ingenito G, Marder SR (2003) Aripiprazole, an Antipsychotic With a Novel Mechanism of Action, and Risperidone vs Placebo in Patients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder. Archivos de Psiquiatría General, 60(7), 681–90. Nota 38: Cormac I, Jones C, Campbell C. (2002) Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of systematic reviews, (1), CD000524. Nota 39: Zimmermann, G., Favrod, J., Trieu, V. H., & Pomini, V. (2005) The effect of cognitive behavioral treatment on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 77, 1-9. Nota 40: Wykes T, Brammer M, Mellers J, Bray P, Reeder C, Williams C, Corner J. (2002) Effects on the brain of a psychological treatment: cognitive remediation therapy: functional magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia. Revista Británica de Psiquiatría, 181, 144-52. Nota 41: Kulhara P. (1994) Outcome of schizophrenia: some transcultural observations with particular reference to developing countries. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 244(5), 227–35. Nota 42: Harding CM, Brooks GW, Ashikaga T, Strauss JS, Breier A. (1987) The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness, II: Long-term outcome of subjects who retrospectively met DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(6), 727–35. Nota 43: Robinson DG, Woerner MG, McMeniman M, Mendelowitz A, Bilder RM (2004) Symptomatic and functional recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 473-479. Nota 44: Hopper K, Wanderling J (2000) Revisiting the developed versus developing country distinction in course and outcome in schizophrenia: results from ISoS, the WHO collaborative followup project. International Study of Schizophrenia. Boletín de Esquizofrenia, 26 (4), 835-46. Nota 45: Hannerz H, Borga P, Borritz M. (2001) Life expectancies for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses. Public Health, 115 (5), 328-37. Nota 46: Radomsky ED, Haas GL, Mann JJ, Sweeney JA (1999) Suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(10), 1590–5. Nota 47: Caldwell CB, Gottesman II. (1990) Schizophrenics kill themselves too: a review of risk factors for suicide. Boletín de Esquizofrenia, 16(4), 571–89. Nota 48: Arseneault L, Cannon M, Witton J, Murray RM. (2004) Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. Revista Británica de Psiquiatría, 184, 110-7. (full text) Nota 49: "Conditions in Occupational Therapy: effect on occupational performance." Ed. Ruth A. Hansen and Ben Atchison (Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Williams, 2000), 54–74. ISBN 0-683-30417-8 Nota 50: Zammit S, Allebeck P, Dalman C, Lundberg I, Hemmingsson T, Lewis (2003) Investigating the association between cigarette smoking and schizophrenia in a cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (12), 2216–21. Nota 51: Walsh E, Gilvarry C, Samele C, Harvey K, Manley C, Tattan T, Tyrer P, Creed F, Murray R, Fahy T (2004) Predicting violence in schizophrenia: a prospective study. Schizophrenia Research, 67(2-3), 247-52. Nota 52: Simpson AI, McKenna B, Moskowitz A, Skipworth J, Barry-Walsh J. (2004) Homicide and mental illness in New Zealand, 1970-2000. Revista Británica de Psiquiatría, 185, 394-8. Nota 53: Fazel S, Grann M. (2004) Psychiatric morbidity among homicide offenders: a Swedish population study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(11), 2129-31. Nota 54: Leong GB, Silva JA. (2003) Neuroleptic-induced akathisia and violence: una reseña. Journal of Forensic Science, 48 Nota 55: Fitzgerald PB, de Castella AR, Filia KM, Filia SL, Benitez J, Kulkarni J. (2005) Victimization of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(3), 169-74. (1), 187-9. Nota 56: Cuervo, T. J. (1997) Schizophrenia as failure of hemispheric dominance for language. Trends in Neurosciences, 20(8), 339–343. Nota 57: Polimeni J, Reiss JP. (2002) How shamanism and group selection may reveal the origins of schizophrenia. Medical Hypothesis, 58(3), 244–8. Nota 58: Torrey EF, Yolken RH. (2003) Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9 (11), 1375-80. Nota 59: Lahti AC, Weiler MA, Tamara Michaelidis BA, Parwani A, Tamminga CA. (2001) Effects of ketamine in normal and schizophrenic volunteers. Neuropsicofarmacología, 25(4), 455-67. Nota 60: Tuominen HJ, Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K. (2005) Glutamatergic drugs for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res, 72:225–34. Nota 61: Kinney GG, Sur C, Burno M, Mallorga PJ, Williams JB, Figueroa DJ, Wittmann M, Lemaire W, Conn PJ. (2003) The Glycine Transporter Type 1 Inhibitor. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23 (20), 7586-7591. Nota 62: Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Rosenheck RA, Perkins DO, Keefe RS, Davis SM, Davis CE, Lebowitz BD, Severe J, Hsiao JK, Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators. (2005) Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. El diario Nueva Inglaterra de medicina, 353 (12), 1209-23.  General reading Bentall, R. (2003) Madness explained: Psychosis and Human Nature. Londres: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0713992492 Boyle, María,(1993), Esquizofrenia: A Scientific Delusion, Routledge, ISBN 0415097002 (Amazon Review). Verde, M.F. (2001) Schizophrenia Revealed: From Neurons to Social Interactions. Nueva York: W. W.. Norton. ISBN 0393703347 Jones, S. and Hayward, P. (2004) Coping with Schizophrenia: A Guide for Patients, Families and Caregivers. ISBN 1851683445 Keen, T. M. (1999) Esquizofrenia: orthodoxy and heresies. A review of alternative possibilities. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 1999, 6, 415-424. PDF. An article reviewing the dominant (orthodox) and alternative (heretical) teorías, hypotheses and beliefs about schizophrenia. NICE (2003) Esquizofrenia: full national clinical guidelines on core interventions in primary and secondary care, NICE, Londres. Read, J., Mosher, L.R., Bentall, R. (2004) Models of Madness: Psicológico, Social and Biological Approaches to Schizophrenia. ISBN 1583919066. A critical approach to biological and genetic theories, and a review of social influences on schizophrenia. Szasz, T. (1976) Esquizofrenia: The Sacred Symbol of Psychiatry. Nueva York: Libros Básicos. ISBN 0465072224 Torey, E.F., M.D.. (2001) Surviving Schizophrenia: A Manual for Families, Consumers, and Providers (4ª Edición). Quill (HarperCollins Publishers) ISBN 0060959193 Vonnegut, M. The Eden Express. ISBN 0553027557. A personal account of schizophrenia. Further reading Achimovich, L. (2005). Review of Models of Madness: Psicológico, Social and Biological Approaches to Schizophrenia: ANZJFT Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy Vol 26(2) Jun 2005, 108-110. Bowen, M. (1960) A family concept of schizophrenia. En: D.D. Jackson (Ed.) The Etiology of Schizophrenia, Nueva York: Libros Básicos. Clark, R.E. (1948) The relationship of schizophrenia to occupational income and occupational prestige, Revista Sociológica Americana 13: 325-30. Clausen, J.A. and Kohn, ML. (1959) Relation of schizophrenia to the social structure of a small city. En: B. Pasamanick (Ed.) Epidemiology of Mental Disorder, Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Leff, J. (1992) Over the edge: stress and schizophrenia, Científico nuevo 4 Enero. Read J, Mosher L, Bentall R, Eds. (2002) Models of madness: psicológico, social and biological approaches to schizophrenia. Strauss, J. and Carpenter, W. (1981) Esquizofrenia, Nueva York: Plenum Press. Instructions_for_archiving_academic_and_professional_materials Schizophrenia - Academic support materials Schizophrenia - Lecture slides Schizophrenia - Lecture notes Schizophrenia - Lecture handouts Schizophrenia - Multimedia materials Schizophrenia - Other academic support materials Schizophrenia - Anonymous fictional case studies for training External links Critical approaches to schizophrenia The fraud of "esquizofrenia" from controversial Scientology based anti-psychiatry group CCHR. A website critical of Schizophrenia as a disorder, with many links and resources, by Al Siebert, psychologist Ph.D. Esquizofrenia: A Nonexsistent Disease by Lawrence Stevens, J.D Critical approaches to schizophrenia (from non-Scientologist sources) Loren Mosher, M.D.. (Chief of the Center for Studies of Schizophrenia at the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health 1969-1980) Still Crazy After All These Years Bola, John R., Doctorado.; & Mosher, Loren R., M.D.. (2003). Treatment of Acute Psychosis Without Neuroleptics: Two-Year Outcomes From the Soteria Project. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, (191: 219-229). Available as PDF. Jonathan Leo, Doctorado. Esquizofrenia: Medical students are taught it's all in the genes, but are they hearing the whole story? Noticia, information and further description Understanding Schizophrenia - A factsheet from the mental health charity Mind. DSM-IV-TR Full diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia World Health Organisation data on schizophrenia from 'The World Health Report 2001. Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope' Schizophrenia in history National Institute of Mental Health (ESTADOS UNIDOS) Schizophrenia information UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging definition The current World Health Organisation definition of Schizophrenia A directory of free full-text articles on diagnosis and management of schizophrenia Symptoms in Schizophrenia Film made in 1940 showing some of the symptoms of Schizophrenia. A non-profit making information site (pharmaceutical company sponsored) Information, cultura, and community for those living with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and chronic mental illness overview from (pharmaceutical company sponsored). Schizophrenia by WebMD (pharmaceutical company sponsored). Open The Doors - information on global programme to fight stigma and discrimination because of Schizophrenia. The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) - This boxview• talk• edit Psychosis-this needs amending only example Psychosis| Psychopathy Types of Psychotic Disorder Schizophrenia| Paranoid schizophrenia| Schizotypal disorder| Persistant delusional disorder| Induced delusional disorder| Schizoaffective disorders| Disorganized schizophrenia| Schizotypy| Assessing Psychosis Psychological tests| Functional assessment| Early detection|Assessment issues|Esquizofrenia - Evaluation protocols| Treating Psychosis Early intervention| TCC|Prevención de recaídas| Psychotherapy|Medicación|Terapia familiar| Rehabilitation| Continuing care| This page uses content from the English-language version of The Psychology Wiki. The original article was at Schizophrenia. La lista de autores se puede ver en el historial de la página. The text of both The Psychology Wiki and Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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