.[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto] En cambio, clinical and counseling psychologists generally rely upon psychological assessment and the use of psychotherapy to relieve psychological distress. It is not uncommon for people suffering from mental illness to combine these services to maximize their impact. Many psychologists conduct research-based, standardized cognitive and projective testing to guide the diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, behavioral/mood disorders, and personality disorders; these test results also inform treatment approaches. Administration and interpretation of the majority of these standardized test instruments require specialized Doctoral level training in psychology.  Careers in Psychology American Psychological Association See also: Mental health professional Professional licensing and regulation See List of credentials in psychology, Professional licensing, Profession certification United States and Canada Licensed psychologists, in virtually every jurisdiction and state in Canada and the U.S., are required to have obtained academic doctoral degrees (typically a PhD or PsyD). These academic programs typically take four to six years of postgraduate work to complete and offer some combination of rigorous training in research, clinical practice, and the science of psychology. Licensed psychologists can contribute to scientific research in the form of a dissertation. En este sentido, the PhD in professional psychology is a hybrid academic/professional degree (with a greater focus on academics related to clinical practice), and university programs in professional psychology are not only academic but are also training programs typically characterized by rigor and intensity. . A Ph.D. psychologist is to be both a scientist and practitioner of the profession. Some psychologists have a professional degree in psychology (PsyD), which focuses more on clinical practice, and include similarly rigorous coursework, supervised professional training, internship, and developing the ability to conduct and interpret academic research. The majority of PsyD programs also require a dissertation, which can include quantitative or qualitative research, theoretical scholarship, program evaluation or development, critical literature analysis, or clinical application and analysis. State-by-state exemptions Similar restrictions apply across the United States, although application of these restrictions varies state-by-state. Most states include exemptions from licensing in order to use the title "psychologist" if they are teaching in universities, or if they are certified by the state's department of education as a school psychologist and are practicing psychology within the scope of their employment in a school district. In most states, self-employed psychologists offering services to the public, whether they are clinical, counseling, escuela, or industrial psychologists must be licensed, which usually requires an advanced degree, two years of supervised experience, and passing written and oral examinations. Psychologists must also complete one year of a clinical internship, either pre-doctoral or post-doctoral. After receiving the Ph.D. the psychologist must spend an additional year as a "Psychologist Resident" and work under the supervision of a licensed psychologist before they are able to take the written licensing examination. The licensing carries the title of licensed psychologist; Marriage and Family Therapist, or some other title depending upon the state or province, is usually reserved for those who have not obtained the doctorate in psychology and only hold a Master's degree in the fields of professional counseling or Marriage and Family Therapy.  Careers in Psychology American Psychological Association Earnings and employment These statistics are from the United States Department of Labor (2004) unless noted otherwise. Employed psychologists: 179,000 2/5 self-employed 1/4 employed by educational institutions (in positions other than teaching) Median income for all clinical, counseling, and school psychologists: NOS $54,950 Median income for industrial/organizational psychologists as of 2004: NOS $71,400 Median income for clinical psychologists with Ph.D. level degree (2001): NOS $72,000 Median income for clinical psychologists with masters-level qualification. (2001): NOS $42,000 Australia Within Australia, the title 'psychologist' is also restricted by law. Use of the title is reserved for individuals registered with government regulated Psychologist's Registration Board in each state of Australia. Minimum requirements for registration is an approved four year bachelors degree majoring in psychology and either two years of further accredited study or two years of work supervised by a registered psychologist. Membership requirements with the Australian Psychological Society is higher than the individual state boards. Restrictions apply to all who want to use the title 'psychologist' in any of its forms. Sin embargo, the terms 'psychotherapist', 'social worker', and 'counselor' is currently self-regulated with several organization campaigning for government regulation. New Zealand In New Zealand, the use of the title 'psychologist' is restricted by law. Inicialmente, only 'clinical psychologist' and 'registered psychologist' were restricted (to people qualified as such). Sin embargo, en 2004, the use of psychologist is now limited to only those registered psychologists (including clinical psychologists). This is to prevent the misrepresentation of other psychology qualifications in the mental health field. Academic psychologists (p. ej.., social psychologists) are now only able to refer to themselves as 'researchers in psychology'. Sweden In Sweden the title "psychologist" y "licensed psychologist" are restricted in law. It can be used after receiving a licence from government. The basic requirements are a completed five years specialised course in psychology (equalling a "master") and and one year of practice under supervision. All other uses are banned, though often challenged. "Psychotherapist" follows similar rules but the basic educational demands are another 1,5 años (spread out over three years) at a specialised course in psychotherapy (that do vary a lot concering theoretical footing), on top of an academical level degree within a field concerning the treatment of people (psychologist, social worker, psychiatrist a.s.o.). Others than psychologist usually have to complete their education with basical courses in psychotherapy to meet the applicational demands for the psychtherapy classes. United Kingdom In the U.K. the use of the title "chartered psychologist" is protected by statutory regulation. At present the registration in order to use the title 'psychologist', 'psychotherapist' or 'therapist' is voluntary, in other words it is not required by any Act of Parliament, but the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy is campaigning with other related organisations for the statutory regulation of the 'talking therapy' professions. Only psychotherapists who meet the training requirements of UKCP and abide by its ethical guidelines are included on the UKCP's register of psychotherapists. The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the British Psychological Society are special members of the UKCP. Areas of specialization Clinical psychologists Counselling psychologists Educational psychologists Experimental psychologists Forensic psychologists Industrial psychologists Military psychologists Prison psychologists Psychotherapists Social psychologists Spoken Psychology Wiki Listen to this article (info) in media player · in browser This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-12-17, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles See also Counsellors List of psychological topics Mental health professional Psychologist attitudes Psychotherapy Psychotherapists Scientists Social workers References ↑ eg. (2007)  ↑ eg. (2007)  ↑ Oficina de Estadísticas Laborales, Estados Unidos. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition, Psychologists, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm (visited October 21, 2007). ↑ Saltar hasta: 4.0 4.1 Salaries in Psychology 2001: Report of the 2001 APA Salary Survey).  ↑ eg. NSW Psychologist's Registration Board ↑ eg. 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