Pituitary gland Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. Latin hypophysis, glandula pituitaria Gray's subject #275 1275 System MeSH A06.407.747 Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic. The pituitary gland, (or hypophysis or Hypophysis cerebri), is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (pituitary fossa]) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain. It is regarded as the 'master gland' because of its role of regulating the activity of other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating homeostasis, including trophic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence. Contenido 1 Sections 1.1 Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) 1.2 Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) 1.3 Intermediate lobe 2 Funciones 3 Patología 4 Imágenes adicionales 5 Ver también 6 Referencias 7 External links Sections Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus. It is divided into two lobes: the anterior or front lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior or rear lobe (neurohypophysis). Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) The posterior lobe is connected to a part of the brain called the hypothalamus via the infundibulum (or stalk), giving rise to the tuberoinfundibular pathway. Hormones are made in nerve cell bodies positioned in the hypothalamus, and these hormones are then transported down the nerve cell's axons to the posterior pituitary. Hypothalamic neurons fire such hormones, releasing them into the capillaries of the pituitary gland. The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are Oxytocin comes from the paraventricular nucleus in the Hypothalamus Antidiuretic hormone (ADH - also known as vasopressin and AVP, arginine vasopressin), comes from the supraoptic nucleus in the Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) The anterior lobe is derived from the oral ectoderm and is composed of glandular epithelium. The anterior pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus via the hypothalamo hypophyseal system connection in the pituitary stalk. Through this vascular connection the hypothalamus integrates stimulatory and inhibitory central and peripheral signals to the five phenotypically distinct pituitary cell types. The anterior pituitary hormones, and the hypothalamic hormones that modulate their release are listed below, along with the associated cell types. Anterior pituitary hormone Hypothalamic hormone Staining type Cell type growth hormone release caused by GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) acidophil somatotrope prolactin release INHIBITED by DA (dopamine, "prolactin inhibiting factor"/PIF) acidophil lactotroph (or mammotroph) follicle-stimulating hormone release caused by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) basophil gonadotrope luteinizing hormone release caused by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) basophil gonadotrope thyroid-stimulating hormone release caused by TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) basophil thyrotrope adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release caused by CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) chromatophobe corticotrope endorphins - - - The hypothalamic hormones travel to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. There is also an interaction between the hormones from the hypothalamus, es decir. TRH induces the release of prolactin. The control of hormones from the pituitary is in a negative feedback loop. Their release is inhibited by increasing levels of hormones from the target gland on which they act. Intermediate lobe There is also an intermediate lobe in many animals. For instance in fish it is believed to control physiological colour change. In adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary, nearly indistinguishable from the anterior lobe. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed to the anterior pituitary. Functions The pituitary gland helps control the following body processes: Growth Blood pressure Some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth Breast milk production Sex organ functions in both women and men Thyroid gland function The conversion of food into energy (metabolism) Water and osmolarity regulation in the body..? Pathology Disorders involving the pituitary gland include: Condition Direction Hormone Acromegaly(Gigantism) overproduction growth hormone Growth hormone deficiency(Dwarfism) underproduction growth hormone Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone overproduction vasopressin Diabetes insipidus underproduction vasopressin Sheehan syndrome underproduction prolactin Pituitary adenoma overproduction any pituitary hormone Hypopituitarism underproduction any pituitary hormone Additional images Pituitary and pineal glands Endocrine system The arteries of the base of the brain, i think? Mesal aspect of a brain sectioned in the median sagittal plane. Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. See also Head and neck anatomy Hypophysectomy - pituitary surgery Hypothalamo hypophyseal system Hypothalmo pituitary adrenal system Embryology of the pituitary gland Growth and somatotrophin deficiency Growth hormone - secretory patterns and control Circadian rhythms The pineal gland and melatonin Autonomic functions of the hypothalamus The pituitary and obesity Pituitary hormones References External links BrainInfo at the University of Washington hier-382 Histology at Boston University 14201loa The Pituitary Gland, from the UMM Endocrinology Health Guide Oklamoma State, Endocrine System Endocrine system - Pituitary gland - edit Posterior pituitary: Pars nervosa | Median eminence | Infundibular stalk Anterior pituitary: Pars intermedia | Pars tuberalis | Pars distalis | Somatotropes | Lactotropes | Thyrotropes | Gonadotropes | Corticotropes v·d·e Human anatomy, sistema endocrino: endocrine glands Hypothalamic/ pituitary axes Thyroid axis Thyroid gland (Parafollicular cell, Thyroid epithelial cell, Thyroid isthmus, Lobes of thyroid gland, Pyramid of thyroid) Parathyroid gland (Oxyphil cell, Chief cell) Adrenal axis: Adrenal gland Medulla Chromaffin cells Cortex Zona glomerulosa · Zona fasciculata · Zona reticularis Paraganglia Organ of Zuckerkandl · Aortic body · Carotid body Gonadal axis Testes · Ovaries · Corpus luteum Pituitary Posterior pituitary Pars nervosa · Median eminence · Infundibular stalk · Pituicyte · Herring bodies Anterior pituitary Pars intermedia · Pars tuberalis · Pars distalis · Acidophils (Somatotropes, Lactotropes) · Basophils (Corticotropes, Gonadotropes, Thyrotropes) Pineal gland Pinealocyte · Corpora arenacea Islets of pancreas Alpha cell · Beta cell · Delta cell · PP cell · Epsilon cell v·d·e Human brain: diencephalon (TA A14.1.08, Georgia 9.807) Epithalamus Surface Pineal body · Habenula · Habenular trigone · Habenular commissure Grey matter Pretectal area · Habenular nuclei · Subcommissural organ Thalamus Surface Stria medullaris of thalamus · Thalamic reticular nucleus · Taenia thalami Grey matter/ nuclei paired: AN · Ventral (VA/VL, VP/VPM/VPL) · Lateral (LD, LP, Pulvinar) · Metathalamus (MG, LG) midline: MD · Intralaminar (Centromedian) · Midline nuclear group · Interthalamic adhesion White matter Mammillothalamic fasciculus · Pallidothalamic tracts (Ansa lenticularis, Lenticular fasciculus, Thalamic fasciculus) · PCML (Medial lemniscus, Trigeminal lemniscus) · Spinothalamic tract · Lateral lemniscus · Dentatothalamic tract · Acoustic radiation · Optic radiation · Subthalamic fasciculus · Anterior trigeminothalamic tract Medullary laminae Hypothalamus Surface Median eminence/Tuber cinereum · Mammillary body · Infundibulum Grey matter Autonomic zones Anterior (parasympathetic/heat loss) · Posterior (sympathetic/heat conservation) Endocrine posterior pituitary: magnocellular/Paraventricular/Supraoptic (oxytocin/vasopressin) otro: parvocellular/Arcuate (dopamine/GHRH) · Preoptic (GnRH) · Suprachiasmatic (melatonin) Emotion Lateral (hunger) · Ventromedial (satiety) · Dorsomedial (rage) White matter afferent (SN → Medial forebrain bundle) · efferent (Mammillothalamic fasciculus → AN, Stria terminalis → Amygdala, Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus → SC) Pituitary Posterior is diencephalon, but anterior is glandular Subthalamus Subthalamic nucleus · Zona incerta Ventricular system: Third ventricle recesses: (Optic recess, Infundibular recess, Suprapineal recess, Pineal recess) Hypothalamic sulcus · Tela chorioidea of third ventricle Subfornical organ Apertures: Interventricular/Monro Posterior commissure This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).
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