Pareto principle

6.2 Theil index 7 Ver también 8 Referencias 9 Otras lecturas 10 External links In economics The original observation was in connection with population and wealth. Pareto noticed that 80% of Italy's land was owned by 20% of the population.[4] He then carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied. Due to the scale-invariant nature of the power law relationship, the relationship applies also to subsets of the income range. Even if we take the ten wealthiest individuals in the world, we see that the top three (Warren Buffett, Carlos Slim Helú, and Bill Gates) own as much as the next seven put together.[5] A chart that gave the inequality a very visible and comprehensible form, the so-called 'champagne glass' effect,[6] was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed the distribution of global income to be very uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income.[7] Distribution of world GDP, 1989[8] Quintile of population Income Richest 20% 82.70% Segundo 20% 11.75% Tercero 20% 2.30% Cuarto 20% 1.85% Poorest 20% 1.40% The Pareto principle has also been used to attribute the widening economic inequality in the United States to 'skill-biased technical change'—i.e. income growth accrues to those with the education and skills required to take advantage of new technology and globalization. In business The distribution shows up in several different aspects relevant to entrepreneurs and business managers. Por ejemplo: 80% of your profits come from 20% of your customers 80% of your complaints come from 20% of your customers 80% of your profits come from 20% of the time you spend 80% of your sales come from 20% of your products 80% of your sales are made by 20% of your sales staff[9] Por lo tanto, many businesses have an easy access to dramatic improvements in profitability by focusing on the most effective areas and eliminating, ignoring, automating, delegating or re-training the rest, as appropriate. In software In computer science and engineering control theory such as for electromechanical energy converters, the Pareto principle can be applied to optimization efforts.[10] Por ejemplo, Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% of the most reported bugs, 80% of the errors and crashes would be eliminated.[11] Other applications In the systems science discipline, Epstein and Axtell created an agent-based simulation model called SugarScape, from a decentralized modeling approach, based on individual behavior rules defined for each agent in the economy. Wealth distribution and Pareto's 80/20 Principle became emergent in their results, which suggests that the principle is a natural phenomenon.[12] The Pareto principle has many applications in quality control.[cita necesaria] It is the basis for the Pareto chart, one of the key tools used in total quality control and six sigma. The Pareto principle serves as a baseline for ABC-analysis and XYZ-analysis, widely used in logistics and procurement for the purpose of optimizing stock of goods, as well as costs of keeping and replenishing that stock.[13] The Pareto principle was a prominent part of the 2007 bestseller The 4-Hour Workweek by Tim Ferriss. Ferriss recommended focusing one's attention on those 20% that contribute to 80% of the income. More notably, he also recommends 'firing' – refusing to do business with – those 20% of customers who take up the majority of one's time and cause the most trouble.[14] In human developmental biology the principle is reflected in the gestation period where the embryonic period constitutes 20% de la totalidad, with the fetal development taking up the rest of the time. In health care in the United States, it has been found that 20% of patients use 80% of health care resources.[15] Several criminology studies have found that 80% of crimes are committed by 20% of criminals.[16] In the financial services industry, this concept is known as profit risk, dónde 20% or fewer of a company's customers are generating positive income while 80% or more are costing the company money.[17] Mathematical notes The idea has rule of thumb application in many places, but it is commonly misused. Por ejemplo, it is a misuse to state that a solution to a problem "fits the 80–20 rule" just because it fits 80% de los casos; it must be implied that this solution requires only 20% of the resources needed to solve all cases. Adicionalmente, it is a misuse of the 80–20 rule to interpret data with a small number of categories or observations. This is a special case of the wider phenomenon of Pareto distributions. If the Pareto index α, which is one of the parameters characterizing a Pareto distribution, is chosen as α = log45 ≈ 1.16, then one has 80% of effects coming from 20% of causes. It follows that one also has 80% of that top 80% of effects coming from 20% of that top 20% of causes, y así. 80% de 80% es 64%; 20% de 20% es 4%, so this implies a "64-4" ley; and similarly implies a "51.2-0.8" ley. Así, el 80-20 rule would imply that 64% of wealth is held by 4% of the people, sin embargo, one cannot reverse this and say that 4% of the wealth is held by the poorer 64% of the people. 80–20 is only a shorthand for the general principle at work. In individual cases, the distribution could just as well be, decir, 80–10 or 80–30. There is no need for the two numbers to add up to 100%, as they are measures of different things, p. ej.., 'number of customers' vs 'amount spent'). Sin embargo, each case in which they do not add up to 100%, is equivalent to one in which they do; por ejemplo, as noted above, el "64-4 ley" (in which the two numbers do not add up to 100%) is equivalent to the "80–20 law" (in which they do add up to 100%). Así, specifying two percentages independently does not lead to a broader class of distributions than what one gets by specifying the larger one and letting the smaller one be its complement relative to 100%. Thus there is only one degree of freedom in the choice of that parameter. Adding up to 100 leads to a nice symmetry. Por ejemplo, if 80% of effects come from the top 20% of sources, then the remaining 20% of effects come from the lower 80% of sources. This is called the "joint ratio", and can be used to measure the degree of imbalance: a joint ratio of 96:4 is very imbalanced, 80:20 is significantly imbalanced (Gini index: 60%), 70:30 is moderately imbalanced (Gini index: 40%), y 55:45 is just slightly imbalanced. The Pareto principle is an illustration of a "power law" relación, which also occurs in phenomena such as brush fires and earthquakes.[18] Because it is self-similar over a wide range of magnitudes, it produces outcomes completely different from Gaussian distribution phenomena. This fact explains the frequent breakdowns of sophisticated financial instruments, which are modeled on the assumption that a Gaussian relationship is appropriate to, por ejemplo, stock movement sizes.[19] Equality measures Gini coefficient and Hoover index Using the "Un : B" notation (por ejemplo, 0.8:0.2) and with A + B = 1, inequality measures like the Gini index and the Hoover index can be computed. In this case both are the same. Theil index The Theil index is an entropy measure used to quantify inequalities. The measure is 0 para 50:50 distributions and reaches 1 at a Pareto distribution of 82:18. Higher inequalities yield Theil indices above 1.[20] Ver también 1% regla (Internet culture) 10/90 gap Benford's law Elephant flow Mathematical economics Megadiverse countries Ninety-ninety rule Pareto distribution Pareto priority index Parkinson's law Principle of least effort Profit risk Sturgeon's law The Long Tail Vitality curve Wealth condensation Zipf's law References ↑ Bunkley, Nick (Marzo 3, 2008), "Joseph Juran, 103, Pioneer in Quality Control, Dies", New York Times, HTTP://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/03/business/03juran.html ↑ Jump up to: 2.0 2.1 What is 80/20 Rule, Pareto’s Law, Pareto Principle, HTTP://www.80-20presentationrule.com/whatisrule.html ↑ Newman, MEJ Power laws, Pareto Distributions, and Zipf's law. URL a la que se accede en 10 Abril 2011. ↑ Pareto, Vilfredo; Página, Alfred N. (1971), 'Translation of Manuale di economia politica ("Manual of political economy"), SOY. Kelley, ISBN 9780678008812 ↑ The Forbes top 100 billionaire rich-list, This is Money, HTTP://www.thisismoney.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=418243&in_page_id=3 ↑ Gorostiaga, Xabier (Enero 27, 1995), "World has become a 'champagne glass' globalisation will fill it fuller for a wealthy few", National Catholic Reporter ↑ United Nations Development Program (1992), 1992 Human Development Report, Nueva York: Oxford University Press ↑ Human Development Report 1992, Capítulo 3, HTTP://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1992/chapters/, recuperado el 2007-07-08 ↑ Living Life the 80/20 Way by Robert Koch ↑ Gen, M.; Cheng, R. (2002), Genetic Algorithms and Engineering Optimization, Nueva York: Wiley ↑ Rooney, Paula (Octubre 3, 2002), Microsoft's CEO: 80–20 Rule Applies To Bugs, Not Just Features, ChannelWeb, HTTP://www.crn.com/news/security/18821726/microsofts-ceo-80-20-rule-applies-to-bugs-not-just-features.htm ↑ Epstein, Joshua; Axtell, Robert (1996), Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom-Up, Prensa del MIT, p. 208, ISBN 0-262-55025-3, HTTP://books.google.com/?id=xXvelSs2caQC ↑ Rushton, Oxley & Croucher (2000), páginas. 107–108. ↑ Ferris, Tim (2006), The 4-Hour Workweek, Crown Publishing ↑ Myrl Weinberg: In health-care reform, el 20-80 solution | Contributors | projo.com | The Providence Journal ↑ Career Criminals: Who Are They and What Should Society Do About Them? | How Do I Get Off Drugs? ↑ Profit Risk ↑ Bak, Por (1999), How Nature Works: the science of self-organized criticality, Salmer, p. 89, ISBN 0387947914 ↑ Taleb, Nassim (2007), The Black Swan, páginas. 228–252, 274–285 ↑ On Line Calculator: Inequality Further reading Bookstein, Abraham (1990), "Informetric distributions, part I: Unified overview", Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41 (5): 368–375, Doi:10.1002/(CIENCIAS)1097-4571(199007)41:5<368::AID-ASI8>3.0.CO;2-C Klass, O. S.; Biham, O.; Gravamen, M.; Malcai, O.; Soloman, S. (2006), "The Forbes 400 and the Pareto wealth distribution", Economics Letters 90 (2): 290–295, Doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2005.08.020 Koch, R. (2001), los 80/20 Principle: The Secret of Achieving More with Less, Londres: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, HTTP://www.scribd.com/doc/3664882/The-8020-Principle-The-Secret-to-Success-by-Achieving-More-with-Less Koch, R. (2004), Living the 80/20 Way: Work Less, Worry Less, Succeed More, Enjoy More, Londres: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, ISBN 1857883314 Junco, W. J. (2001), "The Pareto, Zipf and other power laws", Economics Letters 74 (1): 15–19, Doi:10.1016/S0165-1765(01)00524-9 Rosa, K. T.; Resnick, M. (1980), "The size distribution of cities: an examination of the Pareto law and primacy", Journal of Urban Economics 8 (2): 165–186, Doi:10.1016/0094-1190(80)90043-1 Rushton, Un.; Oxley, J.; Croucher, P. (2000), The handbook of logistics and distribution management (2nd ed.), Londres: Kogan Page, ISBN 9780749433659. External links About.com: Pareto's Principle Wealth Condensation in Pareto Macro-Economies This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

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