· Outline File:Laughter 2 by David Shankbone.jpg Laughing Laughter is an audible expression or appearance of merriment or amusement or an inward feeling of joy and pleasure (laughing on the inside). It may ensue (as a physiological reaction) from jokes, tickling and other stimuli. Inhaling nitrous oxide can also induce laughter; other drugs, such as cannabis, can also induce episodes of strong laughter. Strong laughter can sometimes bring an onset of tears or even moderate muscular pain as a physical response to the act. Laughter can also be a response to physical touch, such as tickling. Laughter is a part of human behaviour regulated by the brain. It helps humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and provides an emotional context to conversations. Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group — it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seemingly contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others. This may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows. The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the human body is called gelotology. Contents 1 Laughter in animals 1.1 Non-human primates 1.2 Rats 1.3 Dogs 2 Laughter in humans 2.1 Gender differences 3 Laughter and the brain 4 Laughter and the body 4.1 The heart 4.2 Diabetes 4.3 Blood flow 4.4 Immune response 4.5 Anxiety and children 4.6 Relaxation and sleep 4.7 Physical fitness 4.8 Asthma 4.9 Strengthening muscles 5 Therapeutic effects of laughter 5.1 Types of therapy 6 Abnormal laughter 7 Causes 8 How laughter happens (cognitive model) 9 Depiction of laughter 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 12.1 Books 13 =Papers 14 External links 14.1 Video Laughter in animals Main article: Laughter in animals Laughter might not be confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. However, some behavioral psychologists argue that self-awareness of one's situation, or the ability to identify with another's predicament are prerequisites for laughter, and thus certain animals are not laughing in the "human manner". An Orangutan "laughing" Research of laughter in animals may identify new molecules to alleviate depression, disorders of excessive exuberance such as mania and ADHD, or addictive urges and mood imbalances. Non-human primates Chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. This is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting. The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. There are instances in which non-human primates have been reported to have expressed joy. One study analyzed and recorded sounds made by human babies and bonobos (also known as pygmy chimpanzees) when tickled. It found that although the bonobo’s laugh was a higher frequency, the laugh followed the same spectrographic pattern of human babies to include as similar facial expressions. Humans and chimpanzees share similar ticklish areas of the body such as the armpits and belly. The enjoyment of tickling in chimpanzees does not diminish with age. Discovery 2003A chimpanzee laughter sample. Goodall 1968 & Parr 2005 Brown Rat Rats It has been discovered that rats emit short, high frequency, ultrasonic, socially induced vocalization during rough and tumble play, and when tickled. The vocalization is described a distinct “chirping”. Humans cannot hear the "chirping" without special equipment. It was also discovered that like humans, rats have "tickle skin". These are certain areas of the body that generate more laughter response than others. The laughter is associated with positive emotional feelings and social bonding occurs with the human tickler, resulting in the rats becoming conditioned to seek the tickling. Additional responses to the tickling were those that laughed the most also played the most, and those that laughed the most preferred to spend more time with other laughing rats. This suggests a social preference to other rats exhibiting similar responses. However, as the rats age, there does appear to be a decline in the tendency to laugh and respond to tickle skin. The initial goal of Jaak Panksepp and Jeff Burgdorf’s research was to track the biological origins of joyful and social processes of the brain by comparing rats and their relationship to the joy and laughter commonly experienced by children in social play. Although, the research was unable to prove rats have a sense of humour, it did indicate that they can laugh and express joy. Panksepp & Burgdorf 2003 Chirping by rats is also reported in additional studies by Brain Knutson of the National Institutes of Health. Rats chirp when wrestling one another, before receiving morphine, or when mating. The sound has been interpreted as an expectation of something rewarding. Science News 2001 Dogs The dog laugh sounds similar to a normal pant. But by analyzing the pant using a sonograph, this pant varies with bursts of frequencies, resulting in a laugh. When this recorded dog-laugh vocalization is played to dogs in a shelter setting, it can initiate play, promote pro-social behavior, and decrease stress levels. In a study by Simonet, Versteeg, and Storie, 120 subject dogs in a mid-size county animal shelter were observed. Dogs ranging from 4 months to 10 years of age were compared with and without exposure to a dog-laugh recording. The stress behaviors measured included panting, growling, salivating, pacing, barking, cowering, lunging, play-bows, sitting, orienting and lying down. The study resulted in positive findings when exposed to the dog laughing: significantly reduced stress behaviors, increased tail wagging and the display of a play-face when playing was initiated, and the increase of pro-social behavior such as approaching and lip licking were more frequent. This research suggests exposure to dog-laugh vocalizations can calm the dogs and possibly increase shelter adoptions. Simonet, Versteeg, & Storie 2005 A dog laughter sample. Simonet 2005 Laughter in humans Laughter is a common response to tickling Recently researchers have shown infants as early as 17 days old have vocal laughing sounds or spontaneous laughter. Early Human Development 2006 This conflicts with earlier studies indicating that babies usually start to laugh at about four months of age; J.Y.T. Greig writes, quoting ancient authors, that laughter is not believed to begin in a child until the child is forty days old.  "Laughter is Genetic" Robert R. Provine, Ph.D. has spent decades studying laughter. In his interview for WebMD, he indicated "Laughter is a mechanism everyone has; laughter is part of universal human vocabulary. There are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much the same way.” Everyone can laugh. Babies have the ability to laugh before they ever speak. Children who are born blind and deaf still retain the ability to laugh. “Even apes have a form of ‘pant-pant-pant’ laughter.” Provine argues that “Laughter is primitive, an unconscious vocalization.” And if it seems you laugh more than others, Provine argues that it probably is genetic. In a study of the “Giggle Twins,” two exceptionally happy twins were separated at birth and not reunited until 40 years later. Provine reports that “until they met each other, neither of these exceptionally happy ladies had known anyone who laughed as much as she did.” They reported this even though they both had been reared by adoptive parents they indicated were “undemonstrative and dour.” Provine indicates that the twins “inherited some aspects of their laugh sound and pattern, readiness to laugh, and perhaps even taste in humor.” WebMD 2002 "The physical and psychological benefits of laughter come second only to the physical and psychological benefits of sex." Raju Mandhyan Gender differences Men and women take jokes differently. A study that appeared in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found in a study, 10 men and 10 women all watched 10 cartoons, rating them funny or not funny and if funny, how funny on a scale of 1–10. While doing this, their brains were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Men and women for the most part agreed which cartoons were funny. However, their brains handled humor differently. Women’s brains showed more activity in certain areas, including the nucleus accumbens. When women viewed cartoons they did not find humorous, their nucleus accumbens had a “ho-hum response.” A man's nucleus accumbens did not react to funny cartoons, and its natural activity level dropped during unfunny cartoons. Researchers suspect the element of surprise may be at the heart of the study. They suggested that maybe women did not expect the cartoons to be funny, while men did the opposite. When the men in the study “got what they expected, their nucleus accumbens were calm.” However, the women’s brains could have had increased activity when they were “pleasantly surprised” by the cartoons’ humour. Researchers also suspect that men might have been “let down by unfunny cartoons, causing a dip in that brain area’s activity.” It was indicated that this study might be a clue about the different emotional responses between men and women and could help with depression research. The research suggests men and women “differ in how humour is used and appreciated,” says Allan Reiss, M.D. WebMD 2005 Laughter and the brain Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal lobe is blue, temporal lobe is green.) Modern neurophysiology states that laughter is linked with the activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which produces endorphins after a rewarding activity. Research has shown that parts of the limbic system are involved in laughter[How to reference and link to summary or text]. The limbic system is a primitive part of the brain that is involved in emotions and helps us with basic functions necessary for survival. Two structures in the limbic system are involved in producing laughter: the amygdala and the hippocampus[How to reference and link to summary or text]. The December 7, 1984 Journal of the American Medical Association describes the neurological causes of laughter as follows: "Although there is no known 'laugh center' in the brain, its neural mechanism has been the subject of much, albeit inconclusive, speculation. It is evident that its expression depends on neural paths arising in close association with the telencephalic and diencephalic centers concerned with respiration. Wilson considered the mechanism to be in the region of the mesial thalamus, hypothalamus, and subthalamus. Kelly and co-workers, in turn, postulated that the tegmentum near the periaqueductal grey contains the integrating mechanism for emotional expression. Thus, supranuclear pathways, including those from the limbic system that Papez hypothesised to mediate emotional expressions such as laughter, probably come into synaptic relation in the reticular core of the brain stem. So while purely emotional responses such as laughter are mediated by subcortical structures, especially the hypothalamus, and are stereotyped, the cerebral cortex can modulate or suppress them." Laughter and the body The heart It has been shown that laughing helps to protect the heart. Although studies are inconclusive as to why, they do explain that mental stress impairs the endothelium, the protective barrier lining a person’s blood vessels. Once the endothelium is impaired, it can cause a series of inflammatory reactions that lead to cholesterol build-up in a person’s coronary arteries. This can ultimately cause a heart attack. Psychologist Steve Sultanoff, Ph.D., the president of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor, gave this explanation: "With deep, heartfelt laughter, it appears that serum cortisol, which is a hormone that is secreted when we’re under stress, is decreased. So when you’re having a stress reaction, if you laugh, apparently the cortisol that has been released during the stress reaction is decreased." Also according to Sultanoff in his interview for the article for WebMD, laughter has been shown to increase tolerance of pain and boost the body’s production of infection-fighting antibodies, which can help prevent hardening of the arteries and subsequent conditions caused thereby such as angina, heart attacks, or strokes. Sultanoff also added that research shows that distressing emotions lead to heart disease. It is shown that people who are “chronically angry and hostile have a greater likelihood for heart attack, people who “live in anxious, stressed out lifestyles have greater blockages of their coronary arteries”, and people who are “chronically depressed have a two times greater chance of heart disease.” WebMD 2000 Diabetes A study in Japan shows that laughter lowers blood sugar after a meal. Keiko Hayashi, Ph.D., R.N, of the University of Tsukuba in Ibaraki, Japan, and his team performed a study of 19 people with type 2 diabetes. They collected the patients’ blood before and two hours after a meal. The patients attended a boring 40 minute lecture after dinner on the first night of the study. On the second night, the patients attended a 40 minute comedy show. The patients’ blood sugar went up after the comedy show, but much less than it did after the lecture. The study found that even when patients without diabetes did the same testing, a similar result was found. Scientists conclude that laughter is good for people with diabetes. They suggest that ‘chemical messengers made during laughter may help the body compensate for the disease.” WebMD 2003 Blood flow Studies at the University of Maryland found that when a group of people were shown a comedy, after the screening their blood vessels performed normally, whereas when they watched a drama, after the screening their blood vessels tended to tense up and restricted the blood flow. WebMD 2006 Immune response Studies show stress decreases the immune system. “Some studies have shown that humor may raise infection-fighting antibodies in the body and boost the levels of immune cells.” Web MD 2006“When we laugh, natural killer cells which destroy tumors and viruses increase, along with Gamma-interferon (a disease-fighting protein), T cells (important for our immune system) and B cells (which make disease-fighting antibodies). As well as lowering blood pressure, laughter increases oxygen in the blood, which also encourages healing.” Discover Health 2004 Anxiety and children According to an article of WebMD, studies have shown that children who have a clown present prior to surgery along with their parents and medical staff had less anxiety than children who just had their parents and medical staff present. High levels of anxiety prior to surgery leads to a higher risk of complications following surgeries in children. According to researchers, about 60% of children suffer from anxiety before surgery. The study involved 40 children ages 5 to 12 who were about to have minor surgery. Half had a clown present in addition to their parents and medical staff, the other half only had their parents and medical staff present. The results of the study showed that the children who had a clown present had significantly less pre-surgery anxiety. WebMD 2005 Relaxation and sleep “The focus on the benefits of laughter really began with Norman Cosins' memoir, Anatomy of an Illness. Cousins, who was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis, a painful spine condition, found that a diet of comedies, like Marx Brothers films and episodes of Candid Camera, helped him feel better. He said that ten minutes of laughter allowed him two hours of pain-free sleep.” WebMD 2006 Physical fitness It has been estimated by scientists that laughing 100 times equals the same physical exertion as a 10 minute workout on a rowing machine or 15 minutes on a stationary exercise bike. Laughing works out the diaphragm, abdominal, respiratory, facial, leg, and back muscles. However, William Fry, a pioneer on laughter research, in an article for WebMd was said to indicate that it “took ten minutes on a rowing machine for his heart rate to reach the level it would after just one minute of hearty laughter.” WebMD 2006 Asthma Nearly 2/3 of people with asthma reported having asthma attacks that were triggered by laughter, according to a study presented at the American Thoracic Society annual meeting in 2005. It did not seem to matter how deep of a laugh the laughter entailed, whether it may be a giggle, chuckle, or belly laugh, says Stuart Garay, M.D., clinical professor of medicine at New York University Medical Center in New York. Patients were part of an 18 month long program who were evaluated for a list of asthma triggers. The patients did not have any major differences in age, duration of asthma, or family history of asthma. However, exercise-induced asthma was more frequently found in patients who also had laughter-induced asthma, according to the study. 61% of laughter induced asthma also reported exercise as a trigger, as opposed to only 35% without laughter-induced asthma. Andrew Ries, M.D. indicates that “it probably involves both movements in the airways as well as an emotional reaction.” WebMD 2005 Strengthening muscles In addition to helping in many other ways, laughing is also clinically proven to strengthen the abdomen. Jared B. Cohen, Ph.D has run many experiments on laughing at his laboratory in Newark, New Jersey and says "Laughing not only helps your heart, but it also helps you look good for the beach". Although some think it is impossible that something as simple and painless as laughing can strengthen one's abdomen, 14 out of every 15 of Cohen's patients said that laughing was a better, and more humorous workout than sit-ups or crunches. To make laughing a truly effective workout, one must laugh for at least 30 seconds until they feel a small burning sensation. Therapeutic effects of laughter While it is normally only considered cliché that "laughter is the best medicine," specific medical theories attribute improved health, increased life expectancy, and overall improved well-being, to laughter. A study demonstrated neuroendocrine and stress-related hormones decreased during episodes of laughter, which provides support for the claim that humour can relieve stress. Writer Norman Cousins wrote about his experience with laughter in helping him recover from a serious illness in 1979's Anatomy of an Illness As Perceived by the Patient. In 1989, the Journal of the American Medical Association published an article, wherein the author wrote that "a humor therapy program can increase the quality of life for patients with chronic problems and that laughter has an immediate symptom-relieving effect for these patients, an effect that is potentiated when laughter is induced regularly over a period".  Some therapy movements like Re-evaluation Counseling believe that laughter is a type of "bodily discharge", along with crying, yawning and others, which requires encouragement and support as a means of healing. Types of therapy There is well documented and ongoing research in this field of study. Psych Nurse 2004This has led to new and beneficial therapies practiced by doctors, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals using humor and laughter to help patients cope or treat a variety of physical, mental, and spiritual issues. The various therapies are not specific to health care professionals or clinicians. Some of the therapies can be practiced individually or in a group setting to aid in a person's well-being. There seems to be something to the old saying "laughter is the best medicine". Or perhaps as stated by Voltaire, "The art of medicine consists of keeping the patient amused while nature heals the disease." Humor Therapy: It is also known as therapeutic humor. Using humorous materials such as books, shows, movies, or stories to encourage spontaneous discussion of the patients own humorous experiences. This can be provided individually or in a group setting. The process is facilitated by clinician. There can be a disadvantage to humor therapy in a group format, as it can be difficult to provide materials that all participants find humorous. It is extremely important the clinician is sensitive to laugh "with" clients rather than "at" the clients. Clown Therapy: Individuals that are trained in clown therapy, are also versed in proper hygiene and hospital procedures to do this. In some hospitals "clown rounds" are made. The clowns perform for others with the use of magic, music, fun, joy, and compassion. For hospitalized children, clown therapy can increase patient cooperation and decrease parental & patient anxiety. In some children the need for sedation is reduced. Other benefits include pain reduction and the increased stimulation of immune function in children. This use of clown therapy is not limited to hospitals. They can transform other places where things can be tough such as nursing homes, orphanages, refugee camps, war zones, and even prisons. The presence of clowns tends to have a positive effect. Laughter Therapy: A client's laughter triggers are identified such as people in their lives that make them laugh, things from childhood, situations, movies, jokes, comedians, basically anything that makes them laugh. Based on the information provided by the client, the clinician creates a personal humor profile to aid in the laughter therapy. In this one on one setting, the client is taught basic exercises that can be practiced. The intent of the exercises is to remind the importance of relationships and social support. It is important the clinician is sensitive to what the client perceives as humorous. Laughter Meditation: In laughter meditation there are some similarities to traditional meditation. However, it is the laughter that focuses the person to concentrate on the moment. Through a three stage process of stretching, laughing and or crying, and a period of meditative silence. In the first stage, the person places all energy into the stretching every muscle without laughter. In the second stage, the person starts with a gradual smile, and then slowly begins to purposely belly laugh or cry, whichever occurs. In the final stage, the person abruptly stops laughing or crying, then with their eyes now closed they breathe without a sound and focus their concentration on the moment. The process is approximately a 15 minute exercise. This may be awkward for some people as the laughter is not necessarily spontaneous. This is generally practiced on an individual basis. Laughter Yoga & Laughter Clubs: Somewhat similar to traditional yoga, laughter yoga which was developed by Dr. Madan Kataria in 1995 at Bombay of India is an exercise which incorporates breathing, yoga, stretching techniques along with laughter. The structured format includes several laughter exercises for a period of 30 to 45 minutes facilitated by a trained individual. Practiced it can be used as supplemental or preventative therapy. Laughter yoga can be performed in a group or a club. Therapeutic laughter clubs are extension of Laughter Yoga, but in a formalized club format. The need for humorous materials is not necessarily required. Laughter yoga is similar to yogic asana and the practice of Buddhist forced laughter. Some participants may find it awkward as laughter is not necessarily spontaneous in the structured format. A growth of laughter-related movements such as Laughter Yoga, Laughing Clubs and World Laughter Day have emerged in recent years as a testament to the growing popularity of laughter as therapy. In China, for example, the popularity of Laughing Clubs has even led to a detailed lexicon of laughing styles, such as "The Lion Bellow" or "The Quarrelling Laugh" . Abnormal laughter Researchers frequently learn how the brain functions by studying what happens when something goes wrong. People with certain types of brain damage produce abnormal laughter. This is found most often in people with pseudobulbar palsy, gelastic epilepsy and, to a lesser degree, with multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and some brain tumors. Inappropriate laughter is considered symptomatic of psychological disorders including dementia and hysteria, but can also be the result of cerebellar lesions causing Pathological Laughter, curable by antidepressants, such as SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants. Some negative medical effects of laughter have been reported as well, including laughter syncope, where laughter causes a person to lose consciousness. Causes A number of competing theories have been written. For Aristotle, we laugh at inferior or ugly individuals, because we feel a joy at being superior to them. Socrates was reported by Plato as saying that the ridiculous was characterized by a display of self-ignorance. Francis Hutcheson expressed in Thoughts on Laughter (1725) what became a key concept in the evolving theory of the comic: laughter as a response to the perception of incongruity. Arthur Schopenhauer wrote that the perceived incongruity is between a concept and the real object it represents. Hegel shared almost exactly the same view, but saw the concept as an "appearance" and believed that laughter then totally negates that appearance. For Sigmund Freud, laughter is an "economical phenomenon" whose function is to release "psychic energy" that had been wrongly mobilized by incorrect or false expectations. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details. Philosopher John Morreall theorizes that human laughter may have its biological origins as a kind of shared expression of relief at the passing of danger. The General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) proposed by Victor Raskin and S. Attardo identifies a semantic model capable of expressing incongruities between semantic scripts in verbal humor; this has been seen as an important recent development in the theory of laughter. Recently Peter Marteinson theorized that laughter is our response to the perception that social being is not real in the same sense that factual states of affairs are true, and that we subconsciously blur the distinctions between cultural and natural truth types, so that we do not normally notice their differing criteria for truth and falsehood. This is an ontic-epistemic theory of the comic (OETC). Robert A. Heinlein's view of why people laugh is explained in one of his most praised novels, Stranger in a Strange Land, "because it hurts", is empathic but also a release of tension. Laughter can be as a coping mechanism for when one is upset, angry or sad. It does not necessarily always occur in a humorous or comedic tone. How laughter happens (cognitive model) In modern times, the tendency is toward acceptance of incongruity as the most common cause of laughter. Although incongruity-based theories are gaining ground, other schools of thought still hold some favour. This is the basis of the cognitive model of humour: the joke creates an inconsistency, the sentence appears to be not relevant, and we automatically try to understand what the sentence says, supposes, doesn't say, and implies; if we are successful in solving this 'cognitive riddle', and we find out what is hidden within the sentence, and what is the underlying thought, and we bring foreground what was in the background, and we realize that the surprise wasn't dangerous, we eventually laugh with relief. Otherwise, if the inconsistency is not resolved, there is no laugh, as Mack Sennett pointed out: "when the audience is confused, it doesn't laugh" (this is the one of the basic laws of a comedian, called "exactness"). This explanation is also confirmed by modern neurophysiology (see section Laughter and the Brain) Depiction of laughter As expected for a common occurrence, laughter is frequently depicted in books and cartoons. The actual language used is listed on the table below. Language How written Notes Arabic هاهاها(hahaha) (general) French hahaha (normal) hihihi (giggle) ouahahah (loud laughter) Chinese 哇哈哈 (wahaha) (loud laughter) 哈哈哈 (hahaha) (normal) 呵呵呵 (hehehe) (chuckles) 嘻嘻嘻 (xixixi) (giggles) German hahaha (normal) hnhnhn hmhmhm chrchrchr (giggle) muhaha ahehe uhaha (sardonic) höhöhö (ironic) Greek χαχαχα χεχεχε (normal) χιχιχι (giggle) μουαχαχα χεχεχε χιχιχι (sardonic) χουχουχου (dumb) Hebrew חחח(hahaha) (general) פחח(pkhhhh) (crude;ridiculing) Hungarian hahaha (classical; the length of it depends on how funny we find the thing we are laughing about) ha. ha. ha. (sarcastic) hehehe (can be a bit malevolent, especially if it is combined with raised eyebrows and a little smile) hihihi (giggle) ho-ho-ho-hóóó (a la Santa Claus) kac-kac (ironic) Indonesian huehehehe (cute way of laughter) bwahahaha (more satisfied way of laughter) Japanese ハハハ (hahaha) (normal) ヒヒヒ (hihihi) (giggles) ヘへへ (hehehe) (sneering) ホホホ (hohoho) (often by women with mouth covered by one hand; similar to te-hees) Lithuanian cha cha cha chi chi chi (giggle) Malaysian Kahkahkah Polish hehe (casual way of expressing laughter) haha (more crude; can be ironic) Russian ха-ха-ха! (hahaha) хи-хи (heehee - giggle) хе-хе (hehe, very mean laughter) Serbian ahahaha (loud laughter) he, he, he (can be a bit meanish) hi, hi, hi (giggling) ho, ho, ho (rare, Santa Claus laughter) Spanish ja ja ja (Usual laugh) je je je (Mischievous little laughter) ji ji ji (Giggle) jo jo jo (San Nicolás -Santa Claus- laugh) jú jú jú (In a high pitch) (mean laugh after a prank) ujú ja ja ja ja ja jaaaaaa... ñaca-ñaca (Evil laugh) Swedish haha (any plain laughter) hehe (more hissing) hihi (giggling) hoho (Santa Claus style) höhö (ironic) moahaha (the evil one) eheh (embarrassed) Turkish hahaha (very typical laughter, it's usually triple 'ha', not double) hehehe (sound a bit more 'polite' than hahaha) ha... ha... ha... (sarcastic) hihihi (giggling) ahahaha (got popular after a TV series character who used to laugh this way) ehehehe (same as hehehe) eki eki (used in comics, especially as the oldie way laughter) keh keh/kah kah (sneaky-ish laughter) muhaha (evil laughter) nihaha (evil laughter) puhaha (used if it's too amusing) uhaha (almost like puhaha) zuhaha (almost like puhaha) LOL and its variations are internet slangs to indicated laughter. See also Death from laughter Emotional responses Gelotology Humour Humor_(positive_psychology) Laughter Yoga Nervous laughter Nonverbal communication Paradoxical laughter Pathological laughing and crying Puns Smiles Theories of humor Notes ↑ J.Y.T. Greig, The Psychology of Comedy and Laughter ↑ "Laugh If This Is a Joke", JAMA, Jan 1989, 261: 558., by Lars Ljungdahl ↑ Shear Hilarity Leading to Laugh Syncope in a Healthy Man, by Dennis Bloomfield and Saad Jazrawi, JAMA, June 15 2005; 293: 2863 - 2864 ↑ Peter Ludwig Berger Redeeming Laughter: The Comic Dimension of Human Experience (1997) p.22 References Books Marteinson, Peter, On the Problem of the Comic: A Philosophical Study on the Origins of Laughter, Legas Press, Ottawa, 2006. Quentin Skinner (2004). "Hobbes and the Classical Theory of Laughter" (pdf). Retrieved on 2006-10-23. included in book: Sorell, Tom; Luc Foisneau . "6" Leviathan After 350 Years, pp. 139-66, Oxford University Press. ISBN 13: 978-0-19-926461-2 ISBN 10: 0-19-926461-9. Raskin, Victor, Semantic Mechanisms of Humor (1985). Klein, A. The Courage to Laugh: Humor, Hope and Healing in the Face of Death and Dying. Los Angeles, CA: Tarcher/Putman, 1998. Ron Jenkins Subversive laughter (New York, Free Press, 1994), 13ff =Papers Bachorowski, J.-A., Smoski, M.J., & Owren, M.J. The acoustic features of human laughter. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110 (1581) 2001 Bakhtin, Mikhail (1941). Rabelais and his world, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Cousins, Norman, Anatomy of an Illness As Perceived by the Patient, 1979. Fried, I., Wilson, C.L., MacDonald, K.A., and Behnke EJ. Electric current stimulates laughter. Nature, 391:650, 1998 (see patient AK) Goel, V. & Dolan, R. J. The functional anatomy of humor: segregating cognitive and affective components. Nature Neuroscience 3, 237 - 238 (2001). Greig, John Young Thomson, The Psychology of Comedy and Laughter, 1923. Provine, R. R., Laughter. American Scientist, V84, 38:45, 1996. MacDonald, C., "A Chuckle a Day Keeps the Doctor Away: Therapeutic Humor & Laughter" Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services(2004) V42, 3:18-25 Kawakami, K., et al, Origins of smile and laughter: A preliminary study Early Human Development (2006) 82, 61-66 Johnson, S., Emotions and the Brain Discover (2003) V24, N4 Panksepp, J., Burgdorf, J., “Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiology & Behavior (2003) 79:533-547 Milius, S., Don't look now, but is that dog laughing? Science News (2001) V160 4:55 Simonet, P., et al, Dog Laughter: Recorded playback reduces stress related behavior in shelter dogs 7th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (2005) Discover Health (2004) Humor & Laughter: Health Benefits and Online Sources Abe, G. (2006). Review of Nepalese Humor: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 19(3) 2006, 380-382. Adams, E. R., & McGuire, F. A. (1986). Is laughter the best medicine? A study of the effects of humor on perceived pain and affect: Activities, Adaptation & Aging Vol 8(3-4) Jun 1986, 157-175. Adams, R. M., & Kirkevold, B. (1978). Looking, smiling, laughing, and moving in restaurants: Sex and age differences: Environmental Psychology & Nonverbal Behavior Vol 3(2) Win 1978, 117-121. Adelsward, V., & Oberg, B.-M. (1998). The function of laughter and joking in negotiation activities: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 11(4) 1998, 411-429. Affeld-Niemeyer, P. (1990). Laughter and its shadow: Archetypal symbols and their history, exemplified by discussing the recognition of the gestalt of the human face, of smiling, laughing, and fear of ridicule: Analytische Psychologie Vol 21(81) Aug 1990, 171-198. Allen, M. W., Reid, M., & Riemenschneider, C. (2004). The role of laughter when discussing workplace barriers: Women in information technology jobs: Sex Roles Vol 50(3-4) 2004, 177-189. Allin, A. (1903). On Laughter: Psychological Review Vol 10(3) May 1903, 306-315. Allman, P. (1994). "Pathological laughing and crying following stroke: Validation of a measurement scale and a double-blind treatment study": Comment: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 151(2) Feb 1994, 291. Ambrose, A. (1963). The age of onset of ambivalence in early infancy: Indications from the study of laughing: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 4(3-4) 1963, 167-181. Angel, M. H. (1991). The roles of humor and laughter in marital issue engagement: Dissertation Abstracts International. Antinucci, P. (2005). Book Reviews: Dark at the End of the Tunnel: I Have Heard the Mermaids Singing: Journal of European Psychoanalysis No 20 2005, 81-85. Arciniegas, D. B. (2005). A Clinical Overview of Pseudobulbar Affect: American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy (AJGP) Vol 3(SupplA) Oct 2005, 4-8. Arlazaroff, A., Mester, R., Spivak, B., Klein, C., & Toren, P. (1998). Pathological laughter: Common vs. unusual aetiology and presentation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences Vol 35(3) 1998, 184-189. Armstrong, S. C., Watters, M. R., & Pearce, J. W. (1990). A case of nocturnal gelastic epilepsy: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology Vol 3(3) Fal 1990, 213-216. Askenasy, J. J. (1987). The functions and dysfunctions of laughter: Journal of General Psychology Vol 114(4) Oct 1987, 317-334. Attardo, S. (2005). Review of Laughter in Interaction (Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics 18): Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 18(4) 2005, 422-429. Auld, F., Jr. (1957). How Teach Incredible Truths? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 2 (10), Oct, 1957. Auld, F., Jr. (1958). A rose with its thorn for Grotjahn: Reply: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 3 (6), Jun, 1958. Bachorowski, J.-A., & Owren, M. J. (2001). Not all laughs are alike: Voiced but not unvoiced laughter readily elicits positive affect: Psychological Science Vol 12(3) May 2001, 252-257. Bachorowski, J.-A., Smoski, M. J., & Owen, M. J. (2001). The acoustic features of human laughter: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol 110(3,Pt1) Sep 2001, 1581-1597. Bainum, C. K., Lounsbury, K. R., & Pollio, H. R. (1984). The development of laughing and smiling in nursery school children: Child Development Vol 55(5) Oct 1984, 1946-1957. Baker, M. C. (2004). The Chorus Song of Cooperatively Breeding Laughing Kookaburras (Coraciiformes, Halcyonidae: Dacelo novaeguineae): Characterization and Comparison Among Groups: Ethology Vol 110(1) Jan 2004, 21-35. Barnett, W., Vieregge, P., & Kompf, D. (1995). Gelastic epilepsy: Sturge-Weber syndrome with seizure facilitation: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie Vol 146(2) 1995, 61-63. Barron, W. L. (1981). The role of imaginal processing in humor: Dissertation Abstracts International. Baudin, H., Feuerhahn, N., Bariaud, F., & Stora-Sendor, J. (1988). Humor in France. New York, NY, England: Greenwood Press. Bawden, H. H. (1910). The comic as illustrating the summation-irradiation theory of pleasure-pain: Psychological Review Vol 17(5) Sep 1910, 336-346. Bazzini, D. G., Stack, E. R., Martincin, P. D., & Davis, C. P. (2007). The effect of reminiscing about laughter on relationship satisfaction: Motivation and Emotion Vol 31(1) Mar 2007, 25-34. Beck, D., & Black, D. W. (1990). Possible etiologic mechanism of pathological laughter: Case report: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 2(4) Dec 1990, 255-257. Beckman, H., Regier, N., & Young, J. (2007). Effect of workplace laughter groups on personal efficacy beliefs: Journal of Primary Prevention Vol 28(2) Mar 2007, 167-182. Bell, N. D. (2007). Review of Laughter and ridicule: Towards a social critique of humour: Discourse & Society Vol 18(4) Jul 2007, 508-510. Bennett, M. P. (1998). The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Bergman, P. (1964). "And a time to laugh." PsycCRITIQUES Vol 9 (5), May, 1964. Berk, R. A. (2001). The active ingredients in humor: Psychophysiological benefits and risks for older adults: Educational Gerontology Vol 27(3-4) Apr-May 2001, 323-339. Berlyne, D. E. (1972). Review of Laughter: A Socio-Scientific Analysis: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 17 (7), Jul, 1972. Berntson, G. G., Boysen, S. T., Bauer, H. R., & Torello, M. W. (1989). Conspecific screams and laughter: Cardiac and behavioral reactions of infant chimpanzees: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 22(8) Dec 1989, 771-787. Berry, P., Parsons, G., Hyde, M., & Hilsdon, R. (1981). Observations of laughing and smiling in a group of moderately intellectually handicapped students: Exceptional Child Vol 28(2) Jul 1981, 128-132. Bertolucci, P. H., Andrade, L. A., Pereira, J. S., & de Campos, C. J. (1985). Imotivated laughter: Report of three cases: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 43(1) Mar 1985, 66-72. Billig, M. (2005). Laughter and ridicule: Towards a social critique of humor. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd. Black, D. W. (1982). Pathological laughter: A review of the literature: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 170(2) Feb 1982, 67-71. Black, K. J. (1994). Pathological laughing and crying: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 151(3) Mar 1994, 456. Blackburn, R. W. (1985). Leadership and laughter: Dissertation Abstracts International. Borod, M. (2006). SMILES--Toward a Better Laughter Life: A Model for Introducing Humor in the Palliative Care Setting: Journal of Cancer Education Vol 21(1) Spr 2006, 30-34. Boylan, L. S., Kaley, T. J., Singh, A., & Devinsky, O. (2003). Postictal laughter following absence status epilepticus: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 4(6) Dec 2003, 773-775. Brenneis, B. (1965). Frames in Search of Pictures: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 10 (10), Oct, 1965. Brodnax, J. (1983). The Lively Room: An effort to design for laughter in hospitals: Man-Environment Systems Vol 13(2) Mar 1983, 97-106. Brodzinsky, D. M., Tew, J. D., & Palkovitz, R. (1979). Control of humorous affect in relation to children's conceptual tempo: Developmental Psychology Vol 15(3) May 1979, 275-279. Brooks, B. R. (2007). Involuntary emotional expression disorder: Treating the untreated: CNS Spectrums Vol 12(4,Suppl5) Apr 2007, 23-27. Brottman, M. (2002). Risus sardonicus: Neurotic and pathological laughter: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 15(4) 2002, 401-417. Brown, G. E., Brown, D., & Ramos, J. (1981). Effects of a laughing versus a nonlaughing model on humor responses in college students: Psychological Reports Vol 48(1) Feb 1981, 35-40. Brown, G. E., Dixon, P. A., & Hudson, J. D. (1982). Effect of peer pressure on imitation of humor response in college students: Psychological Reports Vol 51(3, Pt 2) Dec 1982, 1111-1117. Brown, G. E., Wheeler, K. J., & Cash, M. (1980). The effects of a laughing versus a nonlaughing model on humor responses in preschool children: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 29(2) Apr 1980, 334-339. Buchowski, M. S., Majchrzak, K. M., Blomquist, K., Chen, K. Y., Byrne, D. W., & Bachorowski, J. A. (2007). Energy expenditure of genuine laughter: International Journal of Obesity Vol 31(1) Jan 2007, 131-137. Bueno, A. V., Castello, J. C., & Baos, R. J. (1978). Hereditary cataplexy: Is it primary cataplexy? : Waking & Sleeping Vol 2(2) Apr 1978, 125-126. Butcher, J., & Whissell, C. (1984). Laughter as a function of audience size, sex of the audience, and segments of the short film Duck Soup: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 59(3) Dec 1984, 949-950. Cabell, E., & Gathman, H. (2006). Review of Laughter in interaction: Language in Society Vol 35(5) Nov 2006, 768-771. Callahan, W. A. (1992). Another book of laughter and misunderstandings: A field guide to chuckles, smiles and guffaws: Dissertation Abstracts International. Carey, C. S. (1994). Mature humor or immature wit? The interaction effects of laughter, humor production, humor appreciation, and defensive coping strategies on emotional and physical stress symptoms. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Carlsen, A. (2005). Only when I laugh? Notes on the becoming interview: Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice Vol 11(3) Jun 2005, 239-255. Caron, J. E. (2002). From ethology to aesthetics: Evolution as a theoretical paradigm for research on laughter, humor, and other comic phenomena: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 15(3) 2002, 245-281. Caruso, E. M., & Shafir, E. (2006). Now that I Think about It, I'm in the Mood for Laughs: Decisions Focused on Mood: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Vol 19(2) Apr 2006, 155-169. Casadonte, D. (2003). A note on the neuro-mathematics of laughter: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 16(2) 2003, 133-156. Casper, R. (1999). Laughter and humor in the classroom: Effects on test performance. (arousal, memory, gender differences). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Ceccaldi, M., & Milandre, L. (1994). A transient fit of laughter as the inaugural symptom of capsular-thalamic infarction: Neurology Vol 44(9) Sep 1994, 1762. Ceccaldi, M., Poncet, M., Milandre, L., & Rouyer, C. (1994). Temporary forced laughter after unilateral strokes: European Neurology Vol 34(1) Jan-Feb 1994, 36-39. Ceschi, G., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Children's ability to control the facial expression of laughter and smiling: Knowledge and behaviour: Cognition & Emotion Vol 17(3) May 2003, 385-411. Chafe, W. (2007). The importance of not being earnest: The feeling behind laughter and humor. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Chahine, L. M., & Chemali, Z. (2006). Du rire aux larmes: Pathological laughing and crying in patients with traumatic brain injury and treatment with lamotrigine: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 8(3) May 2006, 610-615. Chapell, M., Batten, M., Brown, J., Gonzalez, E., Herquet, G., Massar, C., et al. (2002). Frequency of public laughter in relation to sex, age, ethnicity, and social context: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 95(3, Pt 1) Dec 2002, 746. Chapman, A. J. (1976). Social aspects of humorous laughter. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Chapman, A. J. (1979). Social aspects of humourous laughter: Przeglad Psychologiczny Vol 22(1) 1979, 89-124. Chapman, A. J. (1983). Waiting for Ellen--To Explain Amusement: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 28 (9), Sep, 1983. Chapman, A. J., & Foot, H. C. (1976). Humor and laughter: Theory, research, and applications. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Chapman, A. J., & Speck, L. J. (1977). Humorous laughter and relief of anxiety in first-born children: Journal of Individual Psychology Vol 33(1) May 1977, 37-41. Chase, C. (1979). No joking matter: A study of laughter in sensitivity training groups: Dissertation Abstracts International. Clapier-Valladon, S. (1983). On laughter: Personnalite Vol 7 1983, 19-27. Coates, J. (2007). Talk in a play frame: More on laughter and intimacy: Journal of Pragmatics Vol 39(1) Jan 2007, 29-49. Cogan, R., Cogan, D., Waltz, W., & McCue, M. (1987). Effects of laughter and relaxation on discomfort thresholds: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 10(2) Apr 1987, 139-144. Cohen, D. (2006). Playful people? New York, NY: Routledge. Colletta, L. (2007). Review of Humoring resistance: Laughter and the excessive body in Latin American women's fiction: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 20(3) 2007, 323-325. Collins, P. (1998). Don't make me laugh: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 2(3) Mar 1998, 80. Corbett, K. (2004). Cracking In: The psychotherapeutic action of comedy: Psychoanalytic Dialogues Vol 14(4) 2004, 457-474. Coser, R. L. (1971). Humor is Serious Business: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (9), Sep, 1971. Cousins, N. (1985). Therapeutic value of laughter: Integrative Psychiatry Vol 3(2) Jun 1985, 112. Crile, G. W., & Rowland, A. F. (1915). Pain, laughter, and crying. Philadelphia, PA: W B Saunders Co. Cueva, M., Kuhnley, R., Lanier, A., & Dignan, M. (2006). Healing Hearts: Laughter and Learning: Journal of Cancer Education Vol 21(2) 2006, 104-107. Dabby, R., Watemberg, N., Lampl, Y., Eilam, A., Rapaport, A., & Sadeh, M. (2004). Pathological laughter as a symptom of midbrain infarction: Behavioural Neurology Vol 15(3-4) 2004, 73-76. Dark, F. L., McGrath, J. J., & Ron, M. A. (1996). Pathological laughing and crying: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 30(4) Aug 1996, 472-479. Davidhizar, R., & Bowen, M. (1992). The dynamics of laughter: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing Vol 6(2) Apr 1992, 132-137. Davids, J. (1987). Laughter in the nursery: Bulletin of the Anna Freud Centre Vol 10(4) 1987, 307-318. Davies, C. (2005). European ethnic scripts and the translation and switching of jokes: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 18(2) 2005, 147-160. Davies, S. (1990). The effects of relaxation and laughter on the perceived intensity and affect of pain tolerance: Dissertation Abstracts International. Davis, M. S. (1979). Sociology through humor: Symbolic Interaction Vol 2(1) May 1979, 105-110. de la Cruz, B.-J. A. (1981). Laughter in children as a function of social facilitation: Philippine Journal of Psychology Vol 14(1-2) 1981, 55-63. De Luca, J. J. (2000). Pathological laughter and crying: A model of neuropathologic mechanisms. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. de Seze, J., Zephir, H., Hautecoeur, P., Mackowiak, A., Cabaret, M., & Vermersch, P. (2006). Pathologic laughing and intractable hiccups can occur early in multiple sclerosis: Neurology Vol 67(9) Nov 2006, 1684-1686. Dean, R. A. (1997). Humor and laughter in palliative care: Journal of Palliative Care Vol 13(1) Spr 1997, 34-39. Deckers, L., Edington, J., & VanCleave, G. (1981). Mirth as a function of incongruities in judged and unjudged dimensions of psychophysical tasks: Journal of General Psychology Vol 105(Pt 2) Oct 1981, 225-233. Derks, P. (2005). Review of Laugh and learn: 95 ways to use humor for more effective teaching and training: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 18(3) 2005, 344-345. Derks, P., Gillikin, L. S., Bartolome-Rull, D. S., & Bogart, E. H. (1997). Laughter and electroencephalographic activity: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 10(3) 1997, 285-300. Derks, P., Kalland, S., & Etgen, M. (1995). The effect of joke type and audience response on the reaction to a joker: Replication and extension: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 8(4) 1995, 327-337. Deutsch, D. (2002). Humor as a reinforcer with depressed and nondepressed subjects. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Devereux, P. G. (1999). The relationship of laughter to a behavioral ecology view of facial displays. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Devereux, P. G., & Ginsburg, G. P. (2001). Sociality effects on the production of laughter: Journal of General Psychology Vol 128(2) Apr 2001, 227-240. Devereux, P. G., & Heffner, K. L. (2007). Psychophysiological approaches to the study of laughter: Toward an integration with positive psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Devlieger, P. J. (1999). Frames of reference in African proverbs on disability: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol 46(4) Dec 1999, 439-451. DeWitt, G. W. (1978). Laterality, personality, and the perception of emotional stimuli: Dissertation Abstracts International. Dillard, A. J. (2007). Humor, laughter, and recovery from stressful experiences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Diserens, C. M., & Bonifield, M. (1930). Humor and the ludicrous: Psychological Bulletin Vol 27(2) Feb 1930, 108-118. Donnelly, W. O. (1978). Naturalistic Vol 27(1) Feb 2007, 108-110. Montagu, A. (1961). Why Man Laughs. New York, NY: New American Library. Morales-Asin, F., Mauri, J. A., Iniguez, C., Larrode, M. P., & Mostacero, E. (1998). Long-term evolution of a laughing headache associated with Chiari type 1 malformation: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 38(7) Jul-Aug 1998, 552-553. Morreall, J. (2006). Book review: Funny Peculiar: Gershon Legman and the Psychopathology of Humor: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 19(1) 2006, 105-109. Moss, S. W. (2007). Marriage enhancement through humor. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Mowrer, D., & D'Zamko, M. E. (1990). A comparison of humor and directive language in Head Start classrooms: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 3(3) 1990, 297-304. Mowrer, D. E. (1994). A case study of perceptual and acoustic features of an infant's first laugh utterances: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 7(2) 1994, 139-155. Mowrer, D. E., LaPointe, L. L., & Case, J. (1987). Analysis of five acoustic correlates of laughter: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior Vol 11(3) Fal 1987, 191-199. Munari, C., Kahane, P., Francione, S., Hoffmann, D., & et al. (1995). Role of the hypothalamic hamartoma in the genesis of gelastic fits (a video-stereo-EEG study): Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 95(3) Sep 1995, 154-160. Neuhoff, C. C., & Schaefer, C. (2002). Effects of laughing, smiling, and howling on mood: Psychological Reports Vol 91(3,Pt2) Dec 2002, 1079-1080. Neve, M. (1988). Freud's theory of humour, wit and jokes. Harlow, Essex, England; Oxford, England: Longman Scientific & Technical/Longman Group UK; John Wiley & Sons. Nicholas, M. W. (1990). The relationship between early group laughter and group cohesiveness in outpatient psychotherapy groups: Dissertation Abstracts International. Niethammer, T. (1983). Does man possess a laughter center? Laughing gas used in a new approach: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 1(1) 1983, 67-69. Nirenberg, S. A. (1991). Normal and pathologic laughter in children: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 30(11) Nov 1991, 630-632. No authorship, i. (1898). Child-Study: Psychological Review Vol 5(2) Mar 1898, 218-220. No authorship, i. (1923). Feeling and emotion: Psychological Bulletin Vol 20(7) Jul 1923, 375. No authorship, i. (2000). Tickled pink? : Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 4(3) Mar 2000, 78. Norrick, N. R. (2003). Review of On Humor: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 16(4) 2003, 426-429. Norris, M. R., & Drummond, S. S. (1998). Communicative functions of laughter in aphasia: Journal of Neurolinguistics Vol 11(4) Oct 1998, 391-402. Nowicki, D. R. (1978). Smiling and laughing in human infancy: A naturalistic perspective: Dissertation Abstracts International. Nwokah, E., & Fogel, A. (1993). Laughter in mother-infant emotional communication: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 6(2) 1993, 137-161. Nwokah, E., & Fogel, A. (1993). Laughter in mothernfant emotional communication: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 6(2) 1993, 137-161. Nwokah, E. E., Davies, P., Islam, A., Hsu, H.-C., & et al. (1993). Vocal affect in three-year-olds: A quantitative acoustic analysis of child laughter: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol 94(6) Dec 1993, 3076-3090. Nwokah, E. E., Hsu, H.-C., Davies, P., & Fogel, A. (1999). The integration of laughter and speech in vocal communication: A dynamic systems perspective: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol 42(4) Aug 1999, 880-894. Nwokah, E. E., Hsu, H.-C., Dobrowolska, O., & Fogel, A. (1994). The development of laughter in mother-infant communication: Timing parameters and temporal sequences: Infant Behavior & Development Vol 17(1) Jan-Mar 1994, 23-35. Nwokah, E. E., Hsu, H.-C., Dobrowolska, O., & Fogel, A. (1994). The development of laughter in mothernfant communication: Timing parameters and temporal sequences: Infant Behavior & Development Vol 17(1) Jan-Mar 1994, 23-35. O'Banion, D., Armstrong, B., Cummings, R. A., & Stange, J. (1978). Disruptive behavior: A dietary approach: Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia Vol 8(3) Sep 1978, 325-337. O'Donovan, D. (1985). Laughter, hilarity, and cognitive change: Psychotherapy in Private Practice Vol 3(4) Win 1985, 61-66. Oliver, C., Demetriades, L., & Hall, S. (2002). Effects of environmental events on smiling and laughing behavior in Angelman syndrome: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 107(3) May 2002, 194-200. Olson, H. A. (1976). The use of humor in psychotherapy: Individual Psychologist Vol 13(1) May 1976, 34-37. Osaka, N., & Osaka, M. (2005). Striatal reward areas activated by implicit laughter induced by mimic words in humans: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 16(15) Oct 2005, 1621-1624. Oshimi, T. (2002). The effect of public self-consciousness on forced laughter: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 73(3) Aug 2002, 251-257. Overeem, S., Reijntjes, R., Huyser, W., Lammers, G. J., & van Dijk, J. G. (2004). Corticospinal excitability during laughter: Implications for cataplexy and the comparison with REM sleep atonia: Journal of Sleep Research Vol 13(3) Sep 2004, 257-264. Overeem, S., Taal, W., Gezici, E. O., Lammers, G. J., & Van Dijk, J. G. (2004). Is motor inhibition during laughter due to emotional or respiratory influences? : Psychophysiology Vol 41(2) Mar 2004, 254-258. Owren, M. J., & Bachorowski, J.-A. (2001). The evolution of emotional experience: A "selfish-gene" account of smiling and laughter in early hominids and humans. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Owren, M. J., & Bachorowski, J.-A. (2003). Reconsidering the evolution of nonlinguistic communication the case of laughter: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior Vol 27(3) Fal 2003, 183-200. Paden-Levy, D. (2003). Funny is serious; serious is funny: Humor and logotherapy: International Forum for Logotherapy Vol 26(1) Spr 2003, 15-20. Panksepp, J. (2000). The riddle of laughter: Neural and psychoevolutionary underpinnings of joy: Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol 9(6) Dec 2000, 183-186. Panksepp, J. (2005). Beyond a Joke: From Animal Laughter to Human Joy? : Science Vol 308(5718) Apr 2005, 62-63. Panksepp, J. (2007). Neuroevolutionary sources of laughter and social joy: Modeling primal human laughter in laboratory rats: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 182(2) Sep 2007, 231-244. Panksepp, J., & Burgdorf, J. (2003). "Laughing" rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? : Physiology & Behavior Vol 79(3) Aug 2003, 533-547. Panksepp, J., & Gordon, N. (2003). The instinctual basis of human affect: Affective imaging of laughter and crying: Consciousness & Emotion Vol 4(2) 2003, 197-205. Panzer, M. J., & Mellow, A. M. (1992). Antidepressant treatment of pathologic laughing or crying in elderly stroke patients: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 5(4) Oct-Dec 1992, 195-199. Parrott, W. G. (1985). Cognitive and social factors underlying infants' smiling and laughter during the peek-a-boo game: Dissertation Abstracts International. Parvizi, J., Anderson, S. W., Martin, C. O., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (2001). Pathological laughter and crying: A link to the cerebellum: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 124(9) Sep 2001, 1708-1719. Paul, L. (1958). Beyond laughter: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 3 (3), Mar, 1958. Pearce, J. M. S. (2004). Some Neurological Aspects of Laughter: European Neurology Vol 52(3) Nov 2004, 169-171. Peterson, J. P. (1981). The communicative intent of laughter in group psychotherapy: Dissertation Abstracts International. Pfeifer, K. (1994). Laughter and pleasure: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 7(2) 1994, 157-172. Pierce, R. A. (1985). Use and abuse of laughter in psychotherapy: Psychotherapy in Private Practice Vol 3(4) Win 1985, 67-73. Pines, L. N. (1963). Laughter as an equivalent of epilepsy: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii 63(9) 1963, 1341-1346. Pintard, P. F. (1987). Stimulus-elicited laughter as a strategy for the modification of chronic pain responses: Dissertation Abstracts International. Pistole, D. D., & Shor, R. E. (1979). A multivariate study of the effect of repetition on humor appreciation as qualified by two social influence factors: Journal of General Psychology Vol 100(1) Jan 1979, 43-51. Platow, M. J., Haslam, S. A., Both, A., Chew, I., Cuddon, M., Goharpey, N., et al. (2005). "It's not funny if they're laughing": Self-categorization, social influence, and responses to canned laughter: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 41(5) Sep 2005, 542-550. Plummer, E. J. (1991). "We're not laughing at you, we're laughing with you": An examination of interactive laughter in five small group conversations: Dissertation Abstracts International. Podilchak, W. (1992). Fun, funny, fun-of humor and laughter: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 5(4) 1992, 375-396. Pollio, H. R. (1988). Note on some demographics of laughter-evoking situations: Psychological Reports Vol 62(1) Feb 1988, 53-54. Pollio, H. R., & Bainum, C. K. (1983). Are funny groups good at solving problems? A methodological evaluation and some preliminary results: Small Group Behavior Vol 14(4) Nov 1983, 379-404. Porcu, L. (2005). Fishy business: Humor in a Sardinian fish market: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 18(1) 2005, 69-102. Porterfield, A. L., Mayer, F. S., Dougherty, K. G., Kredich, K. E., & et al. (1988). Private self-consciousness, canned laughter, and responses to humorous stimuli: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 22(4) Dec 1988, 409-423. Potter, R. E., & Goodman, N. J. (1983). The implementation of laughter as a therapy facilitator with adult aphasics: Journal of Communication Disorders Vol 16(1) Feb 1983, 41-48. Pozo Lauzan, D., & Hernandez Meilan, M. (1985). Laughter as an epileptic manifestation: Revista del Hospital Psiquiatrico de La Habana Vol 26(4) Oct-Dec 1985, 521-528. Pratt, C. C. (1969). Down & up: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 14 (5), May, 1969. Preuschoft, S., & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1997). The social function of "smile" and "laughter": Variations across primate species and societies. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Provine, R. P., & Fischer, K. R. (1989). Laughing, smiling, and talking: Relation to sleeping and social context in humans: Ethology formerly Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie Vol 83(4) Dec 1989, 295-305. Provine, R. R. (1992). Contagious laughter: Laughter is a sufficient stimulus for laughs and smiles: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 30(1) Jan 1992, 1-4. Provine, R. R. (1993). Laughter punctuates speech: Linguistic, social and gender contexts of laughter: Ethology Vol 95(4) Dec 1993, 291-298. Provine, R. R. (1996). Contagious yawning and laughter: Significance for sensory feature detection, motor pattern generation, imitation, and the evolution of social behavior. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Provine, R. R. (1997). Yawns, laughs, smiles, tickles, and talking: Naturalistic and laboratory studies of facial action and social communication. New York, NY ; Paris, France: Cambridge University Press; Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme. Provine, R. R. (2001). Laughter: A scientific investigation. New York, NY: Penguin Press. Provine, R. R. (2004). Laughing, Tickling, and the Evolution of Speech and Self: Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol 13(6) Dec 2004, 215-218. Provine, R. R., & Emmorey, K. (2006). Laughter Among Deaf Signers: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Vol 11(4) Fal 2006, 403-409. Provine, R. R., & Yong, Y. L. (1991). Laughter: A stereotyped human vocalization: Ethology Vol 89(2) Oct 1991, 115-124. Rabins, P. V., & Arciniegas, D. B. (2007). Pathophysiology of involutary emotional expression disorder: CNS Spectrums Vol 12(4,Suppl5) Apr 2007, 17-22. Rabins, P. V., & Cummings, J. L. (2007). Involuntary emotional expression disorder: CNS Spectrums Vol 12(4,Suppl5) Apr 2007, 5. Rankin, A. M., & Philip, P. J. (1963). An epidemic of laughing in the Bukoba district of Tanganyika: Central African Journal of Medicine 9(5) 1963, 167-170. Reddy, V., Williams, E., & Vaughan, A. (2001). Sharing laughter: The humour of pre-school children with Down syndrome: Down Syndrome: Research & Practice Vol 7(3) Oct 2001, 125-128. Reddy, V., Williams, E., & Vaughan, A. (2002). Sharing humour and laughter in autism and Down's syndrome: British Journal of Psychology Vol 93(2) May 2002, 219-242. Reff, R. C. (2007). Developing the Humor Styles Questionnaire-Revised: A review of the current humor literature and a revised measure. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Retzinger, S. (1985). The resentment process: Videotape studies: Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 2(2) Spr 1985, 129-151. Retzinger, S. M. (1987). Resentment and laughter: Video studies of the shame-rage spiral. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Reysen, S. (2006). A New Predictor of Likeability: Laughter: North American Journal of Psychology Vol 8(2) 2006, 373-382. Richman, J. (1995). The lifesaving function of humor with the depressed and suicidal elderly: The Gerontologist Vol 35(2) Apr 1995, 271-273. Rizzo-Tolk, R. (1991). Student interaction and the construction of laughter: Dissertation Abstracts International. Roberts, A. K. P. (1994). The effects of imagery, group therapy or laughter/humor on quality of life in cancer patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Robinson, R. G. (1994). "Pathological laughing and crying following stroke: Validation of a measurement scale and a double blind study": Reply: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 151(2) Feb 1994, 291-292. Robinson, R. G. (1994). "Pathological laughing and crying": Reply: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 151(3) Mar 1994, 456. Romer, G. H. (1998). The experience of laughing in prisoner of war camps. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. Rothbart, M. K. (1976). Incongruity, problem-solving and laughter. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Ruch, W., & Deckers, L. (1993). Do extraverts "like to laugh"? An analysis of the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ): European Journal of Personality Vol 7(4) Oct 1993, 211-220. Rupp, G. V., & Jenkins, H. (2007). That's (k)not funny: Linguistics, laughter, and the science of humor: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 52 (45), 2007. Russell, R. E. (1996). Understanding laughter in terms of basic perceptual and response patterns: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 9(1) 1996, 39-55. Rutkowski, A.-F., Rijsman, J. B., & Gergen, M. (2004). Paradoxical laughter at a victim as communication with a non-victim: Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale Vol 17(4) Dec 2004, 5-21. Sacks, O. (1998). Commentary on pathological laughter to the authors: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences Vol 35(3) 1998, 189. Sakamoto, S., Nameta, K., Kawasaki, T., Yamashita, K., & Shimizu, A. (1997). Polygraphic evaluation of laughing and smiling in schizophrenic and depressive patients: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 85(3, Pt 2) Dec 1997, 1291-1302. Sakuragi, S. (2005). Laughing and Weeping. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Sala, F., Krupat, E., & Roter, D. (2002). Satisfaction and the use of humor by physicians and patients: Psychology & Health Vol 17(3) Jun 2002, 269-280. Sander, K., Brechmann, A., & Scheich, H. (2003). Audition of laughing and crying leads to right amygdala activation in a low-noise fMRI setting: Brain Research Protocols Vol 11(2) May 2003, 81-91. Sander, K., & Scheich, H. (2001). Auditory perception of laughing and crying activates human amygdala regardless of attentional state: Cognitive Brain Research Vol 12(2) Oct 2001, 181-198. Sander, K., & Scheich, H. (2005). Left auditory cortex and amygdala, but right insula dominance for human laughing and crying: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Vol 17(10) Oct 2005, 1519-1531. Sanders, R. E. (2003). Conversational socializing on marine VHF radio: Adapting laughter and other practices to the technology in use. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Sangree, M. L. (1977). Laughter in small groups: Dissertation Abstracts International. Sarra, S., & Otta, E. (2001). Different types of smiles and laughter in preschool children: Psychological Reports Vol 89(3) Dec 2001, 547-558. Satow, R. (1991). Three perspectives on humor and laughing: Classical, object relations, and self psychology: Group Vol 15(4) Win 1991, 242-245. Satow, T., Usui, K., Matsuhashi, M., Yamamoto, J., Begum, T., Shibasaki, H., et al. (2003). Mirth and laughter arising from human temporal cortex: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 74(7) Jul-Dec 2003, 1004-1005. Scharrer, E., Bergstrom, A., Paradise, A., & Ren, Q. (2006). Laughing to keep from crying: Humor and aggression in television commercial content: Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media Vol 50(4) Dec 2006, 615-634. Schiffer, R. B., Herndon, R. M., & Rudick, R. A. (1985). Treatment of pathologic laughing and weeping with amitriptyline: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 312(23) Jun 1985, 1480-1482. Schmidt, G. (1965). Response-reaction experiments on laughter in infants: Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie 17(7) 1965, 188-201. Schmitt, J. J., Janszky, J., Woermann, F., Tuxhorn, I., & Ebner, A. (2006). Laughter and the mesial and lateral premotor cortex: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 8(4) Jun 2006, 773-775. Schneyer, B. B. (1982). Mothering is a ticklish situation, or the contributions of a sense of humor to mothering: Dissertation Abstracts International. Schwab, J. J. (1985). "Therapeutic value of laughter": Commentary: Integrative Psychiatry Vol 3(2) Jun 1985, 112-114. Schwarz, W. (1958). A rose with its thorn for Grotjahn: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 3 (6), Jun, 1958. Shafqat, S., Elkind, M. S. V., Chiocca, E. A., Takeoka, M., & Koroshetz, W. J. (1998). Petroclival meningioma presenting with pathological laughter: Neurology Vol 50(6) Jun 1998, 1918-1919. Shaibani, A. T., Sabbagh, M. N., & Doody, R. (1994). Laughter and crying in neurologic disorders: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology Vol 7(4) Oct 1994, 243-250. Shaughnessy, M. F. (1984). Humor in logotherapy: International Forum for Logotherapy Vol 7(2) Fal-Win 1984, 106-111. Shepard, J. F. (1908). Review of Le rire hysterique: Psychological Bulletin Vol 5(1) Jan 1908, 24. Shimizu, T., Shimizu, A., Yamashita, K., Iwase, M., Kajimoto, O., & Kawasaki, T. (2000). Comparison of eye-movement patterns in schizophrenic and normal adults during examination of facial affect displays: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 91(3, Pt 2) Dec 2000, 1045-1056. Siegel, R. K., & Hirschman, A. E. (1985). Hashish and laughter: Historical notes and translations of early French investigations: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol 17(2) Apr-Jun 1985, 87-91. Sikov, E. K. (1986). Laughing hysterically: American screen comedies of the 1950s: Dissertation Abstracts International. Silverman, S. (1985). "Therapeutic value of laughter": Commentary: Integrative Psychiatry Vol 3(2) Jun 1985, 114. Silverstein, B. (1979). Sick Humor: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 24 (10), Oct, 1979. Simon, A. (2006). Psychoanalytic reflections on the function of the public authority for the Stasi documents: Forum der Psychoanalyse: Zeitschrift fur klinische Theorie & Praxis Vol 22(2) Jun 2006, 204-212. Siporin, M. (1984). Have you heard the one about social work humor? : Social Casework Vol 65(8) Oct 1984, 459-464. Smith, W. (1910). Comedy and the comic experience: Psychological Bulletin Vol 7(3) Mar 1910, 84-87. Smoski, M. (2005). The development of antiphonal laughter between friends and strangers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Smoski, M. J., & Bachorowski, J.-A. (2003). Antiphonal laughter between friends and strangers: Cognition & Emotion Vol 17(2) Mar 2003, 327-340. Sperli, F., Spinelli, L., Pollo, C., & Seeck, M. (2006). Contralateral Smile and Laughter, but No Mirth, Induced by Electrical Stimulation of the Cingulate Cortex: Epilepsia Vol 47(2) Feb 2006, 440-443. Stagner, R. (1957). The Painful Theory of Laughter: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 2 (6), Jun, 1957. Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., & DeWall, C. N. (2007). What's so funny about not having money? The effects of power on laughter: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 33(11) Nov 2007, 1547-1558. Storey, R. (2003). Humor and sexual selection: Human Nature Vol 14(4) 2003, 319-336. Sutorius, D. (1995). The transforming force of laughter, with the focus on the laughing meditation: Patient Education and Counseling Vol 26(1-3) Sep 1995, 367-371. Svebak, S. (1982). The effect of mirthfulness upon amount of discordant right-left occipital EEG alpha: Motivation and Emotion Vol 6(2) Jun 1982, 133-147. Svebak, S., & Apter, M. J. (1987). Laughter: An empirical test of some reversal theory hypotheses: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 28(3) 1987, 189-198. Tateno, A., Jorge, R. E., & Robinson, R. G. (2004). Pathological Laughing and Crying Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences Vol 16(4) Fal 2004, 426-434. Taubman, M. T. (1980). Humor and behavioral matching and their relationship to child care worker evaluation and delinquency in group home treatment programs: Dissertation Abstracts International. Thomas, J. B. (1993). Transgressing language: Laughter and the narratives of women: Dissertation Abstracts International. Thompson, R. A., & Lamb, M. E. (1982). Stranger sociability and its relationships to temperament and social experience during the second year: Infant Behavior & Development Vol 5(3) Jul 1982, 277-287. Thompson, R. A., & Lamb, M. E. (1983). Stranger sociability and its relationships to temperament and social experience during the second year: Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry & Child Development 1983, 188-201. Thorndike, E. L. (1898). The psychology of tickling, laughing and the comic: Psychological Review Vol 5(1) Jan 1898, 88-89. Thorson, J. A. (1990). Is propensity to laugh equivalent to sense of humor? : Psychological Reports Vol 66(3, Pt 1) Jun 1990, 737-738. Tisljar, R., & Bereczkei, T. (2005). An evolutionary interpretation of humor and laughter: Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology Vol 3(3-4) 2005, 301-309. Trice, A. D., & Price-Greathouse, J. (1986). Joking under the drill: A validity study of the Coping Humor Scale: Journal of Social Behavior & Personality Vol 1(2) Apr 1986, 265-266. Trinka, E., Niedermuller, U., Thaler, C., Doering, S., Moroder, T., Ladurner, G., et al. (2000). Gabapentin-induced mood changes with hypomanic features in adults: Seizure Vol 9(7) Oct 2000, 505-508. Truong, K. P., & van Leeuwen, D. A. (2007). Automatic discrimination between laughter and speech: Speech Communication Vol 49(2) Feb 2007, 144-158. Tzolova, S. (1986). Psychology of laughter in the works of M. Dimitrov: Psikhologiia (Bulgaria) Vol 14(3) 1986, 52-56. Udaka, F., & et al. (1984). Pathologic laughing and crying treated with levodopa: Archives of Neurology Vol 41(10) Oct 1984, 1095-1096. Ujlaky, J. (2003). Verbal Humor as Coping: Some Evolutionary and Cultural Insights: Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology Vol 1(3-4) 2003, 227-238. Ura, C., & Yatomi, N. (1997). Smiling and laughter among the elderly: Effects of age and cognitive ability: Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 8(1) Apr 1997, 34-41. Urban, W. M. (1903). Review of Psychologie du Rire: Psychological Review Vol 10(4) Jul 1903, 432-434. Vaid, J., & Kobler, J. B. (2000). Laughing matters: Toward a structural and neural account: Brain and Cognition Vol 42(1) Feb 2000, 139-141. Valeri, R. (2006). Tails of laughter: A pilot study examining the relationship between companion animal guardianship (pet ownership) and laughter: Society & Animals Vol 14(3) 2006, 275-293. Van Teslaar, J. S. (1912). Review of Laughter: An essay on the meaning of the comic: The Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 7(5) Dec-Jan 1912-1913, 373-374. Vejleskov, H. (2001). A distinction between "small humor" and "great humor" and its relevance to the study of children's humor: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 14(4) 2001, 323-338. Ventis, W. L. (1987). Humor and laughter in behavior therapy. Sarasota, FL, England: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc. Vettin, J., & Todt, D. (2004). Laughter in Conversation; Features of Occurrence and Acoustic Structure: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior Vol 28(2) Sum 2004, 93-115. Vettin, J., & Todt, D. (2005). Human laughter, social play, and play vocalizations of non-human primates: an evolutionary approach: Behaviour Vol 142(2) Feb 2005, 217-240. Viti, R. C. (1995). Developing a professional workshop on patients' use of humor and laughter to manage chronic pain. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Vranjesevic, D. (1977). Gelastic epilepsy: Psihijatrija Danas Vol 9(4) 1977, 555-559. Vuchinich, R. E., Tucker, J. A., & Sobell, M. B. (1979). Alcohol, expectancy, cognitive labeling, and mirth: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 88(6) Dec 1979, 641-651. Warga, C. (1984). The role of love and laughter in the healing process (Sheraton-Boston Hotel, Boston, November 4-6, 1983): Summary: Advances Vol 1(1) Win 1984, 38-39. Weeks, M. C. (2002). Laughter, desire, and time: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 15(4) 2002, 383-400. Weisfeld, G. E. (1993). The adaptive value of humor and laughter: Ethology & Sociobiology Vol 14(2) Mar 1993, 141-169. Welch, K. J. (1999). Substance use in HIV-infected patients and humor as a treatment approach. (immune deficiency). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Welker, W. A. (1977). Humor in education: A foundation for wholesome living: College Student Journal Vol 11(3) Fal 1977, 252-254. Westburg, N. G. (2003). Hope, laughter and humor in residents and staff at an assisted living facility: Journal of Mental Health Counseling Vol 25(1) Jan 2003, 16-32. Whissell, C. M. (1982). Different semantic factors representing laughter and smiles: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 54(3, Pt 2) Jun 1982, 1297-1298. White, M. L. (1996). The patient's perception of overheard staff laughter. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. White, S., & Camarena, P. (1989). Laughter as a stress reducer in small groups: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 2(1) 1989, 73-79. White, S., & Winzelberg, A. (1992). Laughter and stress: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 5(4) 1992, 343-355. Wild, B., Rodden, F. A., Grodd, W., & Ruch, W. (2003). Neural correlates of laughter and humour: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 126(10) Oct 2003, 2121-2138. Wilson, B. T., Muller, N., & Damico, J. S. (2007). The use of conversational laughter by an individual with dementia: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics Vol 21(11-12) Nov 2007, 1001-1006. Wilson, C. O. (2006). A study of laughter-situations among young children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Woods, B. S. (1986). Mirthful laughter and directed relaxation: A comparison of physiological responses: Dissertation Abstracts International. Wuehl, M. I. (1990). Mythological amplifications of the theme of laughter: On P. Affeld-Niemeyer's "Laughter and its shadow." Analytische Psychologie Vol 21(81) Aug 1990, 214-218. Young, R. D., & Frye, M. (1966). Some are laughing; some are not: Why? : Psychological Reports 18(3) 1966, 747-754. Zak, G. H. (1966). On the theory and pathology of laughter in psychotherapy: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 3(3) Aug 1966, 97-101. Zehnwirth, H. (2003). Tickle Therapy: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health Vol 39(9) Dec 2003, 721-721. Zeilig, G., Drubach, D. A., Katz-Zeilig, M., & Karatinos, J. (1996). Pathological laughter and crying in patients with closed traumatic brain injury: Brain Injury Vol 10(8) Aug 1996, 591-597. Zimmerman, G. A. (2006). Humor for peace: Finding laughing matters. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers. Zuk, G. H., Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Heiman, E. (1963). Some dynamics of laughter during family therapy: Family Process 2(2) 1963, 302-314. Zweyer, K., Velker, B., & Ruch, W. (2004). Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? A FACS study: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 17(1-2) 2004, 85-119. External links The Origins of Laughter Humor therapy for cancer patients Etymology of Gelotology More information about Gelotology from the University of Washington Dr. Kartaria School of Laughter Yoga Laughter Meditation & Therapy How Stuff Works - Laughter Where Did Laughter Come From? An in-depth online resource explaining how to lead simulated laughter sessions Video Therapeutic laughter video This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Si quieres conocer otros artículos parecidos a Laughter puedes visitar la categoría Recetas.