Post-abortion syndrome

· Post-abortion syndrome (PAS), also known as post-traumatic abortion syndrome and abortion trauma syndrome, is a term used to describe a set of psychopathological characteristics that have been observed in women following an elective abortion. [1] There is no agreement within the medical community as to whether these characteristics constitute a separate nosological category. [1] [2] PAS is not included in the DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10 list of psychiatric conditions. Although no formal definition exists, PAS is characterized as being similar to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Il termine "abortion trauma syndrome" has been used by abortion opponents to imply that connection. [2] UN 2005 study showed that the criteria for PTSD were met in all ten cases of alleged PAS that were looked at. [1] Apart from the PTSD-specific symptoms, other symptoms noted were "repeated and persistent dreams and nightmares related with the abortion, intense feelings of guilt and the 'need to repair'." [1] The U.S. Surgeon General, C Everett Koop, conducted a review in 1989 of over 250 studies pertaining to the psychological impact of abortion, but wrote that it was not possible to reach any conclusions, and recommended setting up a five-year, $100 million study. [3] Contenuto 1 Most likely to be affected 2 Referenze 3 Further reading Most likely to be affected According to a 2005 report of the American Psychological Association (APA), prior research indicated that adverse emotional reactions to the procedure are most strongly influenced by pre-existing psychological conditions and other negative factors. [4] A recent longitudinal study of 630 young women in New Zealand [5] found results that conflict with the conclusions of the 2005 APA report. Women who had an abortion between the ages of 15 e 25 were significantly more likely to develop mental health problems post-abortion, including depression, suicidal behaviors and substance use disorders. This was the case even when accounting for confounding variables, including pre-existing psychological conditions. Empirical research suggests that some women are more likely than others to develop post-abortion psychological problems. [6] The risk-factors include: low self-efficacy for coping with the abortion [7] low self-esteem [8] external locus of control [9] difficulty with the decision [10][11] when there is emotional investment in the pregnancy [12][13] perceptions of one's partner, family members, or friends as non-supportive [14][15] timing during adolescence, being unmarried, or poor [16][17][18][19][20] pre-existing emotional problems or unresolved traumatization [21] a poor or insecure attachment relationship with one's mother or a childhood history of separation from one's mother for a year or more before age 16 [22][23][24] involvement in violent relationships [25][26] traditional sex-role orientations [27] conservative views of abortion and/or religious affiliation [28][29][30] when a pregnancy is initially intended [31][32][33][34][35] abortion during the second trimester [36] when woman is in an unstable partner relationship [37][38] being forced into abortion by one's partner, others, or by life circumstances [39] Referenze ↑ Jump up to: 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Gomez, Lavin C & Zapata, Garcia R. "Diagnostic categorization of post-abortion syndrome", Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2005 Jul-Aug;33(4):267-72. ↑ Jump up to: 2.0 2.1 Stotland NL. The myth of the abortion trauma syndrome. GIAMA. 1992 ottobre 21;268(15):2078-9. PMID 1404747. ↑ Koop CE. Post abortion syndrome: myth or reality? Health Matrix. 1989 Summer;7(2):42-4. PMID 10294679. ↑ American Psychological Association. (2005). "APA Briefing Paper on The Impact of Abortion on Women", retrieved January 15, 2006. ↑ Fergusson, DM, Horwood, L.J., & Ridden, E.M. (2006. Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Giornale di psicologia e psichiatria infantile, 47(1), 16-24. ↑ Coleman, P.K., Reardon, D.C., & Strahan, T. (2005). The psychology of abortion: A review and suggestions for future research. Psychology and Health, 20(2), 237-271. ↑ Major, B., Cozzarelli, C., Sciacchitano, A.M., Bottaio, M.L., Testa, M., & Mueller, P.M. (1990). Perceived social support, self-efficacy, and adjustment to abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 186-197. ↑ Cozzarelli, C., Karrasch, UN., Sumer, N., & Major, B. (1994). The meaning and impact of partner's accompaniment on women's adjustment to abortion. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 2028-2056. ↑ Cozzarelli, C. (1993). Personality and self-efficacy as predictors of coping with abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1224-1236. ↑ Bracken, M.B. (1978). A causal model of psychosomatic reactions to vacuum aspiration abortion. Social Psychiatry, 13, 135-145. ↑ Osofsky, J.D., & Osofsky, H.J. (1972). The psychological reaction of patients to legalized abortion. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 42, 48-60. ↑ Lyndon, J., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Cohan, C.L., & Pierce, T. (1996). Pregnancy decision making as a significant life event: A commitment approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 141-151. ↑ Remennick, L.I., & Segal, R. (2001). Sociocultural context and women's experiences of abortion: Israeli women and Russian immigrants compared. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 3, 49-66. ↑ Major et al. (1990). ↑ Major, B., & Cozzarelli, C. (1992). Psychological predictors of adjustment to abortion. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 121-142. ↑ Adler, N.E. (1975). Emotional responses of women following therapeutic abortion: How great a problem? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 240-259. ↑ Bracken, M.B., Hachamovitch, M., & Grossman, G. (1974). The decision to abort and psychological sequelae. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 158, 155-161. ↑ Campbell, N., Franco, K., & Jurs, S. (1988). Abortion in adolescence. Adolescence, 23, 813-823. ↑ Franz, W., & Reardon, D. (1992). Differential impact of abortion on adolescents and adults. Adolescence, 27, 161-172. ↑ Osofsky & Osofsky (1972) ↑ Speckhard, UN., & Rue, V. (1992). Postabortion syndrome: An emerging public health concern. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 95-119. ↑ Cozzarelli, C., Sumer, N., & Major, B. (1998). Mental models of attachment and coping with abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 453-467. ↑ Kitamura, T., Toda, MA, Shima, S., & Sugawara, M. (1998). Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: A psychosocial study. Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19, 126-134. ↑ Payne, e., Kravitz, UN., Notman, M., & Anderson, J. (1976). Outcome following therapeutic abortion. Archivi di Psichiatria Generale, 33, 725-733. ↑ Allanson, S., & Astbury, J. (2001). Attachment style and broken attachments: Violence, pregnancy, and abortion. Australian Journal of Psychology, 53, 146-151. ↑ Russo, N., & Denious, J.E. (2001). Violence in the lives of women having abortions: Implications for policy and practice. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 32, 142-150. ↑ Gold, D., Berger, C., & Andres, D. (1979). The abortion choice: Psychological determinants and consequences. Concordia University, Dipartimento di Psicologia, Montreal. ↑ Bogen, io. (1974). Attitudes of women who have had abortions. Journal of Sex Research, 10, 97-109. ↑ Osofsky & Osofsky (1972) ↑ Soderberg, H., Janzon, l., & Slosberg, N.-O. (1998). Emotional distress following induced abortion: A study of its incidence and determinants among adoptees in Malmo, Svezia. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 79, 173-178. ↑ Ashton, J. (1980). The psychosocial outcome of induced abortion. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 87, 1115-1122. ↑ Friedman, C., Greenspan, R., & Mittleman, F. (1974). The decision-making process and the outcome of therapeutic abortion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 1332-1337. ↑ Lazarus, UN. (1985). Psychiatric sequelae of legalized first trimester abortion. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 141-150. ↑ Major, B., Mueller, P., & Hildebrandt, K. (1985). Attributions, expectations, and coping with abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 585-599. ↑ Miller, W.B. (1992). An empirical study of the psychological antecedents and consequenes of induced abortion. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 67-93. ↑ Anthanasiou, R., Oppel, W., Michelson, l., Unger, T., & Yager, M. (1973). Psychiatric sequelae to term birth and induced early and late abortion: A longitudinal study. Family Planning Perspectives, 5, 227-231. ↑ Llewellyn, S.P., & Pytches, R. (1988). An investigation of anxiety following termination of pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51, 468-471. ↑ Soderberg, H., Andersson, C., Janzon, l., & Slosberg, N.-O. (1997). Continued pregnancy among abortion applicants. A study of women having a change of mind. Act Obstetrica Gynecologica Scandinavia, 76, 942-947. ↑ Friedman, et. al (1974) Further reading Post-traumatic abortion syndrome - The myth of PAS Post-Abortion Stress Syndrome - Post-Abortion Stress Syndrome News, commentary and lived experience from the post-abortion movement - Notizia, commentary and lived experience from the post-abortion movement An essay about the mental health of those that abort - originally published at Hope after Abortion - Catholic Church's ministry to those experiencing distress after abortion Neutral support after an abortion. Post-Abortion Syndrome at Recognizing Post-Abortion Syndrome Post-Abortion Syndrome at SafeHaven de:Post-Abortion Syndrome This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (visualizzare gli autori).

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