International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

· The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. It is published by the World Health Organization and is used world-wide for morbidity and mortality statistics. It is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth edition, known as the ICD-10. Every disease (or group of related diseases) is described with its diagnosis and given a unique code, up to five letters long. Contents 1 International Classification of Diseases 1.1 Historia 1.2 Current Use 1.2.1 Public Data Reporting 1.3 ICD-9 1.4 ICD-10 1.5 Ver también 1.6 Enlaces externos 1.6.1 ICD9 Visión general Look up codes 1.6.2 ICD10 Visión general Look up codes 1.6.3 Conversion between ICD-9-CM-A and ICD-10-AM 1.7 See also International Classification of Diseases The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) are designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of morbidity and mortality statistics. ICD-9. Commonly disputed by healthcare providers as billing code and not representative of true clinical outcomes, the ICD-9 transforms verbal descriptions of diseases, lesiones, and procedures into numbers. The current ICD-9-CM has been revised to incorporate changes in the medical field. Hasta la fecha, there have been 10 versions of the ICD, with the ICD-10 developed in 1992 to track mortality statistics. The years for which causes of death in the United States have been classified by each revision as follows: ICD-1 - 1900 ICD-2 - 1910 ICD-3 - 1921 ICD-4 - 1930 ICD-5 - 1939 ICD-6 - 1949 ICD-7 - 1958 ICD-8A - 1968 ICD-9 - 1979 ICD-10 - 1992 History The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of morbidity and mortality statistics. In 1893, a French physician, Jacques Bertillon, introduced the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death at the International Statistical Institute in Chicago. A number of countries adopted Dr. Bertillon’s system, y en 1898, the American Public Health Association (APHA) recommended that the registrars of Canada, México, and the United States also adopt it. The APHA also recommended revising the system every ten years to ensure the system remained current with medical practice advances. Como resultado, the first international conference to revise the International Classification of Causes of Death convened in 1900; with revisions occurring every ten years thereafter. At that time the classification system was contained in one book, which included an Alphabetic Index as well as a Tabular List. The book was small compared with current coding texts. The revisions that followed contained minor changes, until the sixth revision of the classification system. With the sixth revision, the classification system expanded to two volumes. The sixth revision included morbidity and mortality conditions, and its title was modified to reflect the changes: Manual of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD). Prior to the sixth revision, responsibility for ICD revisions fell to the Mixed Commission, a group composed of representatives from the International Statistical Institute and the Health Organization of the League of Nations. En 1948, the World Health Organization (OMS) assumed responsibility for preparing and publishing the revisions to the ICD every ten years. WHO sponsored the seventh and eighth revisions in 1957 y 1968, respectively. In 1959, estados unidos. Public Health Service published The International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Indexing of Hospital Records and Operation Classification (ICDA). It was completed in 1962 and a revision of this adaptationconsidered to be the seventh revision of ICDexpanded a number of areas to more completely meet the indexing needs of hospitals. Los Estados Unidos. Public Health Service later published the Eighth Revision, International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Use in the United States. Commonly referred to as ICDA-8, this classification system fulfilled its purpose to code diagnostic and operative procedural data for official morbidity and mortality statistics in the United States. WHO published the ninth revision of ICD (ICD-9) en 1978. Los Estados Unidos. Public Health Service modified ICD-9 to meet the needs of American hospitals and called it International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) [1]. The ninth revision expanded the book to three volumes and introduced a fifth-digit sub-classification. Current Use ICD has become the most widely used statistical classification system in the world. Although some countries found ICD sufficient for hospital indexing purposes, many others felt that it did not provide adequate detail for diagnostic indexing. The original revisions of ICD also did not provide for classification of operative or diagnostic procedures. Como resultado, interested persons in the United States began to develop their own adaptation of ICD for use in the United States. Hospitals and other healthcare facilities index healthcare data by referring and adhering to a classification system published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The Clinical Modification or CM system was developed and implemented in order to better describe the clinical picture of the patient. The CM codes are more precise than those needed only for statistical groupings and trend analysis. The diagnosis component of ICD-9-CM is completely consistent with ICD-9 codes. Of note, ICD-10 was adopted in 1999 for reporting mortality, but the ICD-9-CM remains the data standard for reporting morbidity. Revisions of the ICD-10 have progress to incorporate both clinical code (ICD-10-CM) and procedure code (ICD-10-PCS) with the revisions completed in 2003. Sin embargo, ICD-9 has not been phased out by the new revision. Public Data Reporting Setting the data standard for healthcare providers for the world is a task undertaken in the last fifty years by the World Health Organization (OMS). As individuals become more involved in their personal healthcare, the data standard shared by most will be the International Classification of Diseases or ICD. These codes also have an active role in reporting of data from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations JCAHO but also the current public data on hospitals released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ServicesCMS in the United States ICD-9 The ICD-9 was published by the WHO in 1977. At this time, the National Center for Health Statistics created an extension of it so the system could be used for morbidity as well as mortality ([2]). This extension was called "ICD-9-CM", with the CM standing for "Clinical Modification".  There are three volumes of the ICD-9-CM: Volumes 1 y 2 contain diagnosis codes. (Volumen 1 is a tabular listing, and volume 2 is an index.) Volumen 3 contains procedure codes. ICD-10 Work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and was completed in 1992. (Also see the ICD-10 online.) Links to diseases can be accessed from: List of ICD-10 codes. Adoption was relatively swift in most of the world, but not in the United States. Ya que 1988, the USA had required ICD-9-CM codes for Medicare and Medicaid claims, and most of the rest of the American medical industry followed suit. On January 1, 1999, the ICD-10 (without clinical extensions) was adopted for reporting mortality, but ICD-9-CM was still used for morbidity. Mientras tanto, NCHS received permission from the WHO to create a clinical modification of the ICD-10, and has produced drafts of the following two systems: ICD-10-CM, for diagnosis codes, is intended to replace volumes 1 y 2. A draft was completed in 2003. ICD-10-PCS, for procedure codes, is intended to replace volume 3. A final draft was completed in 2000. However, neither of these systems is currently in place. There is not yet an anticipated implementation date to phase out the use of ICD-9-CM. There will be a two year implementation window once the final notice to implement has been published in the Federal Register. [3]. A detailed timeline is provided here. Other countries have created their own extensions to ICD-10. Por ejemplo, Australia introduced their first edition of "ICD-10-AM" en 1998, and Canada introduced "ICD-10-CA" in 2000. See also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis diagnosis-related group Medical classification External links ICD9 Overview ICD-9-CM homepage Look up codes Free 24/7 ICD-9-CM coding site using the Flash Code program, also supports DRG Stanford database Searchable Chrisendres database Columbia CentralX ICD-9 Coding Tools From Family Practice Management ICD10 Overview ICD-10 homepage ICD-10-CM draft ICD-10-CM Look up codes Lookup site from World Health Organization Lookup site -- North Carolina List of codes ICD-10 Code Search Conversion between ICD-9-CM-A and ICD-10-AM Excel spreadsheets with ICD-10-AM to ICD-9-CM-A and vice versa See also Diagnosis Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Disorders Mental disorders Psychodiagnosis Reasearch disgnostic criteria {{enWP|International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems]]

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