Hypertext

cards. In the 1930s, H.G. Wells proposed the creation of a World Brain. For reasons of cost, neither proposal got very far. Por lo tanto, all major histories of hypertext start with 1945, when Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think," about a futuristic device he called a Memex. He described the device as mechanical desk linked to an extensive archive of microfilms and able to display books, texts or any document from the library, and further able to automatically follow references from any given page to the specific page referenced. Most experts do not consider the Memex to be a true hypertext system. Sin embargo, the story starts with the Memex because "As We May Think" directly influenced and inspired the two American men generally credited with the invention of hypertext, Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart. Nelson coined the word "hypertext" en 1965 and helped Andries van Dam develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1968 at Brown University; Engelbart had begun working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968. That year, Engelbart demonstrated a hypertext interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos". After funding for NLS slowed to a trickle in 1974, progress on hypertext research nearly came to a halt. During this time, the ZOG at Carnegie Mellon started as an artificial intelligence research project under the supervision of Allen Newell. Only much later would its participants realize that their system was a hypertext system. ZOG was deployed in 1980 on the U.S.S. Carl Vinson and later commercialized as Knowledge Management System. The early 1980s saw a number of experimental hypertext and hypermedia programs, many of whose features and terminology were later integrated into the Web. Sin embargo, none of these systems achieved widespread success or name recognition with consumers. Guide was the first hypertext system for personal computers, but it was not very successful. Guide was quite expensive and difficult to use, as it had originally been developed for UNIX workstations and was subsequently ported to DOS. It was immediately eclipsed by HyperCard. In August 1987, Apple Computer revealed its HyperCard application for its Macintosh line of computers at the MacWorld convention in Boston. HyperCard was an immediate hit and helped to popularize the concept of hypertext with the general public The first hypertext-specific academic conference also took place that year. Mientras tanto, Nelson had been working on and advocating his Xanadu system for over two decades, and the commercial success of HyperCard stirred Autodesk to invest in his revolutionary ideas. The project limped on for four years without ever releasing a complete product, before Autodesk pulled the plug in the midst of the 1991-1992 recession. En 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system, somewhat like a wiki. A finales de hoy 1990, Berners-Lee, then a scientist at CERN, invented the World Wide Web to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world. Early in 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois released a first version of their Mosaic browser to replace the two lacking existing web browsers: one that ran only on NeXTSTEPand one that was minimally user-friendly. Mosaic ran in the X Window System environment, popular in the research community, and offered usable window-based interaction. Web traffic exploded from only 500 known web servers in 1993 to over 10,000 en 1994 after the release of browser versions for both the PC and Macintosh environments. All the earlier hypertext systems were overshadowed by the success of the World Wide Web, even though it lacks many features of those earlier systems such as typed links, transclusion and source tracking. Implementations Besides the already mentioned HyperCard and World Wide Web, there are other noteworthy implementations of hypertext, with different feature sets: Microsoft Word has evolved in orientation from paper to in-computer documents. Information Presentation Facility used for displaying help in the IBM operating systems. Windows Help Adobe's Portable Document Format supports links. Texinfo, the GNU help system. XML with the XLink extension. The many implementations of wiki, like the MediaWiki system that powers Wikipedia, that aim to compensate for the lack of integrated editors in most Web browsers. Academic conferences One of the top academic conferences for new research in hypertext is the annually held ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT 2006) Although not exclusively about hypertext, the World Wide Web series of conferences, organized by IW3C2, includes many papers of interest. There is a list with links to all conferences in the series. Critics and theorists Jay David Bolter Robert Coover J.Yellowlees Douglas N. Katherine Hayles Michael Joyce George Landow Lev Manovich Stuart Moulthrop Ted Nelson See also Computer software Hypermedia References Bolter, Jay David (2001). Writing Space: Ordenadores, Hypertext, and the Remediation of Print, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Asociados. ISBN 0805829199. Byers, T. J. (Abril 1987). Built by association. PC World 5: 244-251. Crane, Gregory (1988). 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(2001). Influence of passive versus active information access to hypertextual infortmation resources on cognitive and emotional parameters: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 25(3) 2001, 301-318. External links Psychology with Style: A Hypertext Writing Guide The Shaping of Hypertextual Narrative The ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia Electronic Literature Organization (for more on hypertext literature) Hypertext: Behind the Hype mprove: Historical Overview of Hypertext The first use of hypertext (?) - TIFF image Co-link, a Brazilian research project Reviving Advanced Hypertext (whether and how concepts from hypertext research can be used on the Web) Scripts Search Engine A Brief History of Human Computer Interaction Technology the TAI/MAI/NAI Progession Overview and NRG's "Laws of Good Answers" presented as a Network Distributed Dense Meme Stack This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

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