Ear ossicles

Ear ossicles Ossicles Latin membrana tympani Gray's subject #231 1044 System MeSH A09.246.397.247 Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of the tympanum. The ear ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest bones in the human body. They are contained within the middle ear space and serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid filled labyrinth (cochlea). The absence of the auditory ossicles would constitute a moderate to severe hearing loss. The ossicles are, in order from the eardrum to the inner ear, the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, so named because of the shape of the bones. They are also commonly referred to by the equivalent Latin terms: malleus, incus, and stapes respectively. The malleus articulates with the incus and is attached to the tympanic membrane (eardrum), from which vibrational energy is passed. The incus is connected to both the other bones. The stapes articulates with the incus and is attached to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis, the elliptical or oval window or opening between the middle ear and the vestibule of the inner ear. As sound waves vibrate the tympanic membrane (eardrum), it in turn moves the nearest ossicle, the malleus to which it is attached. The malleus then transmits the vibrations, via the incus, to the stapes, and so ultimately to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis, the opening to the vestibule of the inner ear. The ossicles give the eardrum mechanical advantage via lever action and a reduction in the area of force distribution; the resulting vibrations would be much smaller if the sound waves were transmitted directly from the outer ear to the oval window. Sin embargo, the extent of the movements of the ossicles is controlled (and constricted) by certain muscles attached to them (the tensor tympani and the stapedius). It is believed that these muscles can contract to dampen the vibration of the ossicles, in order to protect the inner ear from excessively loud noise (teoría 1) and that they give better frequency resolution at higher frequencies by reducing the transmission of low frequencies (teoría 2) (see acoustic reflex). Occasionally the joints between the ossicles become rigid. One condition, Otosclerosis, results in the fusing of the stapes to the oval window. This reduces hearing and may be treated surgically. External links The middle ear and the ossicles v·d·e Sensory system: Sistemas auditivo y vestibular (AT A15.3, Georgia 10.1029) Pabellón auricular externo (Hélice, antihélix, trago, antitrago, Incisión anterior de la oreja, Lóbulo de oreja) • Canal auditivo • Músculos auriculares Tímpano (Forma, parte flácida) Oído medio Cavidad timpánica Pared laberíntica/medial: Ventana oval · Ventana redonda • Membrana timpánica secundaria • Prominencia del canal facial • Promontorio de la cavidad timpánica Pared membranosa/lateral Pared mastoidea/posterior: Células mastoideas • Aditus al antro mastoideo • Eminencia piramidal Pared carotídea/pared tegmentaria anterior/techo: Receso epitimpánico Pared/suelo yugular Osículos Martillo (cuello de martillo, Ligamento superior del martillo, Ligamento lateral del martillo, Ligamento anterior del martillo) · yunque (Ligamento superior del yunque, Ligamento posterior del yunque) · Estribo (Ligamento anular del estribo) Músculos Estapedio · Tensor del tímpano Trompa de Eustaquio Parte ósea de la trompa faringotimpánica · Cartílago de la trompa faringotimpánica (gaitero toro) Oído interno/ (laberinto membranoso, laberinto óseo) Sistema auditivo Laberinto coclear Cóclea general Scala vestibuli • Helicotrema • Scala tympani • Modiolus • Cúpula coclear Espacio perilinfático Perilinfa • Acueducto coclear Conducto coclear / escala media Membrana de Reissner/vestibular • Membrana basilar Endolinfa • Estría vascular • Ligamento espiral Órgano de Corti: Estereocilios • Membrana tectoria • Surco espiral (externo, interno) • Limbo espiral Sistema vestibular/ Laberinto vestibular Estático/traslación/vestíbulo/conducto endolinfático: utrículo (Mancha) · Bolsas (Mancha, saco endolinfatico) · Kinocilio · Otolito • Acueducto vestibular • Canalis reuniens Cinética/rotaciones: Canales semicirculares (Superior, Posterior, Horizontal) • Cúpula ampular • Ampollas (Crista ampullaris) {| clase="navbox plegable nowraplinks" estilo="margen:auto; " [. v]·[. d]·[. e] M: Oído anat (e/p)/física/desarrollo noco/cong, epón proc, droga (S2) |} Plantilla REDIRECT:Bonesofskeleton de:Gehörknöchelchen es:Cadena de huesecillos fr:Osselet (oreille) es:Klausomieji kauliukai nl:Gehoorbeentje fi:Kuuloluut This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

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