Caudate nucleus

Cerebro: Caudate nucleus [[Imagen:{{{Imagen}}}|250Px|centro|]] {{{Caption}}} Transverse Cut of Brain (Horizontal Section), basal ganglia is blue Latin nucleus caudatus [[List of subjects in Gray's Anatomy:{{{GraySubject}}}#Gray.27s_page_.23|Gray's]] subject #{{{GraySubject}}} Part of Components Artery Vein BrainInfo/UW hier-208 MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.105.487.550.184 The caudate nucleus is a nucleus located within the basal ganglia of the brains of many animal species. The caudate, originally thought to primarily be involved with control of voluntary movement, is now known to be an important part of the brain's learning and memory system. Contents 1 Anatomy 2 Neurochemistry 3 Fisiología 3.1 Learning and Memory 3.2 Language Comprehension 3.3 Threshold control 3.4 Role in Human Love 3.5 Role in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 4 Imágenes adicionales 5 Referencias 6 Referencias 7 External links Anatomy The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within each hemisphere of the brain. Individually, they resemble a C-shape structure with a wider head at the front, tapering to a body and a tail. (Sometimes a part of the caudate nucleus is referred to as genu [1]).  The head and body of the caudate nucleus form the part of the floor of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. After the body travels briefly towards the back of the head, the tail curves back toward the anterior, forming the roof of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. This means that a coronal (on the same plane as the face) section that cuts through the tail will also cross the body (or head) of the caudate nucleus. The caudate nucleus is related anatomically to a number of other structures. It is separated from the lenticular nucleus (made up of the globus pallidus and the putamen) by the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Together the caudate and putamen form the dorsal striatum. Neurochemistry The caudate nucleus is highly innervated by dopamine neurons. These neurons originate mainly from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). There are also additional inputs from various association cortices. Physiology Learning and Memory Historically, the basal ganglia as a whole has been implicated in higher-order motor control (p.ej, [2]). Más recientemente, it has been demonstrated that the caudate is highly involved in learning and memory [3], particularly regarding feedback processing [4]. En general, it has been demonstrated that neural activity will be present within the caudate while an individual is receiving feedback. Language Comprehension The left caudate in particular has been suggested to have a relationship with the thalamus that governs the comprehension and articulation of words as they are switched between languages. [5] [6] Threshold control Brain contains large collections of neurons reciprocally connected by excitatory synapses, thus forming large network of elements with positive feedback. It is difficult to see, how such a system can operate without some mechanism to prevent explosive activation. There is some indirect evidence[7], that caudate may perform this regulatory role by measuring the general activity of cerebral cortex and controlling the threshold potential. Role in Human Love Recently, scientists have discovered the function of caudate in humans falling in love. When a group of college students were shown a photo of their beloved, both the caudate and the ventral tegmental areas lit up. These MRI brain scans suggest that the ventral tegmental floods the caudate with dopamine when falling in love. [8] Role in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder It has been theorized that the caudate nucleus may be dysfunctional in persons with Obsessive compulsive disorder, in that it may perhaps be unable to properly regulate the transmission of information regarding worrying events or ideas between the thalamus and the Orbitofrontal cortex. A neuroimaging study with positron emission tomography found that the right caudate nucleus had the largest change in glucose metabolism after patients had been treated with paroxetine.[9] Additional images Diagram of hippocampus Velum interpositum. Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (I to V). Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. Dissection showing the ventricles of the brain. Coronal section of brain immediately in front of pons. Coronal section of brain through intermediate mass of third ventricle. Coronal section of lateral and third ventricles. Section of brain showing upper surface of temporal lobe. Central part and anterior and posterior cornua of lateral ventricles exposed from above. Two views of a model of the striatum: Un, lateral aspect; B, mesal aspect. Coronal section through anterior cornua of lateral ventricles. Coronal section of brain through anterior commissure. Gray749.png Coronal section of inferior horn of lateral ventricle. Referencias ↑ E. H. Yeterian, D. N. Pandya, "Corticostriatal connections of extrastriate visual areas in rhesus monkeys," The Journal of Comparative Neurology 352(3):436-457, 1995. PMID: 7706560 ↑ Wilson SAK. 1912. An experimental research into the anatomy of the corpus striatum. Cerebro 36:427-92 ↑ Graybiel AM (2005) The basal ganglia: learning new tricks and loving it. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:638-644. ↑ Packard MG, Knowlton BJ (2002) Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia. Annu Rev Neurosci 25:563-593. ↑ "How bilingual brains switch between tongues" at ↑ "Language Control in the Bilingual Brain " at sciencemag.orgBraitenberg V. (1984)Vehicles. Experiments in synthetic psychology. ↑ HTTP:// S. Hansen, Steen Hasselbalch, Ian Law; Tom G. Bolwig (2002). The caudate nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Reduced metabolism following treatment with paroxetine: a PET study. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 5 (1): 1 10. References External links BrainMaps at UCDavis caudate%20nucleus Diagram at Telencephalon (telencéfalo, corteza cerebral, hemisferios cerebrales) - editar surcos/fisuras primarias: longitudinal medial, lateral, central, parietoöccipital, calcarina, lóbulo frontal cingulado: giro precentral (corteza motora primaria, 4), surco precentral, giro frontal superior (6, 8), giro frontal medio (46), giro frontal inferior (área de Broca, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), corteza prefrontal (corteza orbitofrontal, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47) lóbulo parietal: surco postcentral, giro postcentral (1, 2, 3, 43), lóbulo parietal superior (5), lóbulo parietal inferior (39-giro angular, 40), precúneo (7), Lóbulo occipital del surco intraparietal: corteza visual primaria (17), cuneus, giro lingual, 18, 19 (18 y 19 abarcar todo el lóbulo) lóbulo temporal: giro temporal transversal (41-42-corteza auditiva primaria), giro temporal superior (38, 22-el área de Wernicke), giro temporal medio (21), giro temporal inferior (20), giro fusiforme (36, 37) lóbulo límbico/giro fornicado: corteza cingulada/giro cingulado, cingulado anterior (24, 32, 33), cingulado posterior (23, 31), istmo (26, 29, 30), giro parahipocampal (corteza piriforme, 25, 27, 35), corteza entorrinal (28, 34) corteza subcortical/insular: rhinencephalon, bulbo olfativo, cuerpo calloso, ventrículos laterales, septum pellucidum, epéndimo, cápsula interna, corona radiata, Formación del hipocampo de la cápsula externa.: giro dentado, hipocampo, subículo ganglios basales: Estriado (núcleo caudado, Putamen), núcleo lentiforme (Putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, cápsula extrema, amígdala, núcleo accumbens Algunas categorizaciones son aproximaciones, and some Brodmann areas span gyri. This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

Si quieres conocer otros artículos parecidos a Caudate nucleus puedes visitar la categoría Basal ganglia.

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *


we use own and third party cookies to improve user experience More information