of the quality of patient breathing. Shallow, rapid, and effortful breathing lowers CO2, while deep, lento, effortless breathing increases it.[37] Biofeedback therapists use capnometric biofeedback to supplement respiratory strain gauge biofeedback with patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders, asthma, chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder (COPD), essential hypertension, panic attacks, and stress.[9][39][40] Rheoencephalograph Rheoencephalography (REG), or brain blood flow biofeedback, is a biofeedback technique of a conscious control of blood flow. An electronic device called a rheoencephalograph [from Greek rheos stream, anything flowing, from rhein to flow] is utilized in brain blood flow biofeedback. Electrodes are attached to the skin at certain points on the head and permit the device to measure continuously the electrical conductivity of the tissues of structures located between the electrodes. The brain blood flow technique is based on non-invasive method of measuring bio-impedance. Changes in bio-impedance are generated by blood volume and blood flow and registered by a rheographic device.[41] The pulsative bio-impedance changes directly reflect the total blood flow of the deep structures of brain due to high frequency impedance measurements.[42] Hemoencephalography Hemoencephalography or HEG biofeedback is a functional infrared imaging technique. As its name describes, it measures the differences in the color of light reflected back through the scalp based on the relative amount of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood in the brain. Research continues to determine its reliability, validity, and clinical applicability. HEG is used to treat ADHD and migraine, and for research.[43] Applications Urinary incontinence Mowrer detailed the use of a bedwetting alarm that sounds when children urinate while asleep. This simple biofeedback device can quickly teach children to wake up when their bladders are full and to contract the urinary sphincter and relax the detrusor muscle, preventing further urine release. Through classical conditioning, sensory feedback from a full bladder replaces the alarm and allows children to continue sleeping without urinating.[44] Kegel developed the perineometer in 1947 to treat urinary incontinence (urine leakage) in women whose pelvic floor muscles are weakened during pregnancy and childbirth. The perineometer, which is inserted into the vagina to monitor pelvic floor muscle contraction, satisfies all the requirements of a biofeedback device and enhances the effectiveness of popular Kegel exercises.[45] Contradicting this, un 2013 randomized controlled trial found no benefit of adding biofeedback to pelvic floor muscle exercise in stress urinary incontinence.[46][non-primary source needed] In another randomized controlled trial the addition of biofeedback to the training of pelvic floor muscles for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence, improved pelvic floor muscle function, reduced urinary symptoms, and improved of the quality of life.[47][non-primary source needed] Research has shown that biofeedback can improve the efficacy of pelvic floor exercises and help restore proper bladder functions. The mode of action of vaginal cones, for instance involves a biological biofeedback mechanism. Studies have shown that biofeedback obtained with vaginal cones is as effective as biofeedback induced through physiotherapy electrostimulation.[48] En 1992, the United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research recommended biofeedback as a first-line treatment for adult urinary incontinence.[49] Fecal incontinence and anismus Biofeedback is a major treatment for anismus (paradoxical contraction of puborectalis during defecation). This therapy directly evolved from the investigation anorectal manometry where a probe that can record pressure is placed in the anal canal. Biofeedback therapy is also a commonly used and researched therapy for fecal incontinence, but the benefits are uncertain.[50] Biofeedback therapy varies in the way it is delivered. It is also unknown if one type has benefits over another.[50] The aims have been described as either to enhance the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR), rectal sensitivity (by discrimination of progressively smaller volumes of a rectal balloon and promptly contracting the external anal sphincter (EAS)) or the strength and endurance of the EAS contraction. Three general types of biofeedback have been described, though they are not mutually exclusive, with many protocols combining these elements.[50] Similarly there is variance of the length of both the individual sessions and the overall length of the training, and if home exercises are performed in addition and how. In rectal sensitivity training, a balloon is placed in the rectum, and is gradually distended until there is a sensation of rectal filling. Successively smaller volume reinflations of the balloon aim to help the person detect rectal distension at a lower threshold, giving more time to contract the EAS and prevent incontinence, or to journey to the toiled. Alternativamente, in those with urge incontinence/ rectal hypersensitivity, training is aimed at teaching the person to tolerate progressively larger volumes. Strength training may involve electromyography (EMG) skin electrodes, manometric pressures, intra-anal EMG, or endoanal ultrasound. One of these measures are used to relay the muscular activity or anal canal pressure during anal sphincter exercise. Performance and progress can be monitored in this manner. Co-ordination training involves the placing of 3 globos, in the rectum and in the upper and lower anal canal. The rectal balloon is inflated to trigger the RAIR, an event often followed by incontinence. Co-ordination training aims to teach voluntary contraction of EAS when the RAIR occurs (es decir. when there is rectal distension).[50] EEG Main article: Electroencephalography Caton recorded spontaneous electrical potentials from the exposed cortical surface of monkeys and rabbits, and was the first to measure event-related potentials (EEG responses to stimuli) en 1875.[51] Danilevsky published Investigations in the Physiology of the Brain, which explored the relationship between the EEG and states of consciousness in 1877.[52] Beck published studies of spontaneous electrical potentials detected from the brains of dogs and rabbits, and was the first to document alpha blocking, where light alters rhythmic oscillations, en 1890.[53] Sherrington introduced the terms neuron and synapse and published the Integrative Action of the Nervous System in 1906.[54] Pravdich-Neminsky photographed the EEG and event related potentials from dogs, demonstrated a 12–14 Hz rhythm that slowed during asphyxiation, and introduced the term electrocerebrogram in 1912.[55] Forbes reported the replacement of the string galvanometer with a vacuum tube to amplify the EEG in 1920. The vacuum tube became the de facto standard by 1936.[56] Berger (1924) published the first human EEG data. He recorded electrical potentials from his son Klaus's scalp. At first he believed that he had discovered the physical mechanism for telepathy but was disappointed that the electromagnetic variations disappear only millimeters away from the skull. (He did continue to believe in telepathy throughout his life, sin embargo, having had a particularly confirming event regarding his sister). He viewed the EEG as analogous to the ECG and introduced the term elektenkephalogram. He believed that the EEG had diagnostic and therapeutic promise in measuring the impact of clinical interventions. Berger showed that these potentials were not due to scalp muscle contractions. He first identified the alpha rhythm, which he called the Berger rhythm, and later identified the beta rhythm and sleep spindles. He demonstrated that alterations in consciousness are associated with changes in the EEG and associated the beta rhythm with alertness. He described interictal activity (EEG potentials between seizures) and recorded a partial complex seizure in 1933. Finalmente, he performed the first QEEG, which is the measurement of the signal strength of EEG frequencies.[57] Adrian and Matthews confirmed Berger's findings in 1934 by recording their own EEGs using a cathode-ray oscilloscope. Their demonstration of EEG recording at the 1935 Physiological Society meetings in England caused its widespread acceptance. Adrian used himself as a subject and demonstrated the phenomenon of alpha blocking, where opening his eyes suppressed alpha rhythms.[58] Gibbs, Davis, and Lennox inaugurated clinical electroencephalography in 1935 by identifying abnormal EEG rhythms associated with epilepsy, including interictal spike waves and 3 Hz activity in absence seizures.[52] Bremer used the EEG to show how sensory signals affect vigilance in 1935.[59] Walter (1937, 1953) named the delta waves and theta waves, and the contingent negative variation (CNV), a slow cortical potential that may reflect expectancy, motivación, intention to act, or attention. He located an occipital lobe source for alpha waves and demonstrated that delta waves can help locate brain lesions like tumors. He improved Berger's electroencephalograph and pioneered EEG topography.[60] Kleitman has been recognized as the "Father of American sleep research" for his seminal work in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles, ritmos circadianos, the sleep patterns of different age groups, and the effects of sleep deprivation. He discovered the phenomenon of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with his graduate student Aserinsky in 1953.[61] Dement, another of Kleitman's students, described the EEG architecture and phenomenology of sleep stages and the transitions between them in 1955, associated REM sleep with dreaming in 1957, and documented sleep cycles in another species, cats, en 1958, which stimulated basic sleep research. He established the Stanford University Sleep Research Center in 1970.[62] Andersen and Andersson (1968) proposed that thalamic pacemakers project synchronous alpha rhythms to the cortex via thalamocortical circuits.[63] Kamiya (1968) demonstrated that the alpha rhythm in humans could be operantly conditioned. He published an influential article in Psychology Today that summarized research that showed that subjects could learn to discriminate when alpha was present or absent, and that they could use feedback to shift the dominant alpha frequency about 1 Hz. Almost half of his subjects reported experiencing a pleasant "alpha state" characterized as an "alert calmness." These reports may have contributed to the perception of alpha biofeedback as a shortcut to a meditative state. He also studied the EEG correlates of meditative states.[64] Marrón (1970) demonstrated the clinical use of alpha-theta biofeedback. In research designed to identify the subjective states associated with EEG rhythms, she trained subjects to increase the abundance of alpha, beta, and theta activity using visual feedback and recorded their subjective experiences when the amplitude of these frequency bands increased. She also helped popularize biofeedback by publishing a series of books, including New Mind, New body (1974) and Stress and the Art of Biofeedback (1977).[65][66][67] Mulholland and Peper (1971) showed that occipital alpha increases with eyes open and not focused, and is disrupted by visual focusing; a rediscovery of alpha blocking.[68] Green and Green (1986) investigated voluntary control of internal states by individuals like Swami Rama and American Indian medicine man Rolling Thunder both in India and at the Menninger Foundation. They brought portable biofeedback equipment to India and monitored practitioners as they demonstrated self-regulation. A film containing footage from their investigations was released as Biofeedback: The Yoga of the West (1974). They developed alpha-theta training at the Menninger Foundation from the 1960s to the 1990s. They hypothesized that theta states allow access to unconscious memories and increase the impact of prepared images or suggestions. Their alpha-theta research fostered Peniston's development of an alpha-theta addiction protocol.[69] Sterman (1972) showed that cats and human subjects could be operantly trained to increase the amplitude of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) recorded from the sensorimotor cortex. He demonstrated that SMR production protects cats against drug-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic seizures involving loss of consciousness) and reduces the frequency of seizures in humans diagnosed with epilepsy. He found that his SMR protocol, which uses visual and auditory EEG biofeedback, normalizes their EEGs (SMR increases while theta and beta decrease toward normal values) even during sleep. Sterman also co-developed the Sterman-Kaiser (SKIL) QEEG database.[70] Birbaumer and colleagues (1981) have studied feedback of slow cortical potentials since the late 1970s. They have demonstrated that subjects can learn to control these DC potentials and have studied the efficacy of slow cortical potential biofeedback in treating ADHD, epilepsia, migraine, and schizophrenia.[71] Lubar (1989) studied SMR biofeedback to treat attention disorders and epilepsy in collaboration with Sterman. He demonstrated that SMR training can improve attention and academic performance in children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (TDAH). He documented the importance of theta-to-beta ratios in ADHD and developed theta suppression-beta enhancement protocols to decrease these ratios and improve student performance.[72] The Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System a device used to measure the Theta-to-Beta ratio was approved as a tool to assist in diagnosis of ADHD on July 15, 2013.[73] Sin embargo, the field has recently moved away from the measure. This move has been caused by the general change in the population norms in the past 20 años (most likely due to the change in the average amount of sleep in young people).[cita necesaria] Electrodermal system Feré demonstrated the exosomatic method of recording of skin electrical activity by passing a small current through the skin in 1888.[74] Tarchanoff used the endosomatic method by recording the difference in skin electrical potential from points on the skin surface in 1889; no external current was applied.[75] Jung employed the galvanometer, which used the exosomatic method, en 1907 to study unconscious emotions in word-association experiments.[76] Marjorie and Hershel Toomim (1975) published a landmark article about the use of GSR biofeedback in psychotherapy.[16] Meyer and Reich discussed similar material in a British publication.[77] Musculoskeletal system Jacobson (1930) developed hardware to measure EMG voltages over time, showed that cognitive activity (like imagery) affects EMG levels, introduced the deep relaxation method Progressive Relaxation, and wrote Progressive Relaxation (1929) and You Must Relax (1934). He prescribed daily Progressive Relaxation practice to treat diverse psychophysiological disorders like hypertension.[78] Several researchers showed that human subjects could learn precise control of individual motor units (motor neurons and the muscle fibers they control). lindsley (1935) found that relaxed subjects could suppress motor unit firing without biofeedback training.[79] Harrison and Mortensen (1962) trained subjects using visual and auditory EMG biofeedback to control individual motor units in the tibialis anterior muscle of the leg.[80] Basmajian (1963) instructed subjects using unfiltered auditory EMG biofeedback to control separate motor units in the abductor pollicis muscle of the thumb in his Single Motor Unit Training (SMUT) studies. His best subjects coordinated several motor units to produce drum rolls. Basmajian demonstrated practical applications for neuromuscular rehabilitation, pain management, and headache treatment.[81] Marinacci (1960) applied EMG biofeedback to neuromuscular disorders (where proprioception is disrupted) including Bell Palsy (one-sided facial paralysis), polio, and stroke.[82] "While Marinacci used EMG to treat neuromuscular disorders, his colleagues only used the EMG for diagnosis. They were unable to recognize its potential as a teaching tool even when the evidence stared them in the face! Many electromyographers who performed nerve conduction studies used visual and auditory feedback to reduce interference when a patient recruited too many motor units. Even though they used EMG biofeedback to guide the patient to relax so that clean diagnostic EMG tests could be recorded, they were unable to envision EMG biofeedback treatment of motor disorders."[83] Whatmore and Kohli (1968) introduced the concept of dysponesis (misplaced effort) to explain how functional disorders (where body activity is disturbed) develop. Bracing your shoulders when you hear a loud sound illustrates dysponesis since this action does not protect against injury.[84] These clinicians applied EMG biofeedback to diverse functional problems like headache and hypertension. They reported case follow-ups ranging from 6 Para 21 años. This was long compared with typical 0-24 month follow-ups in the clinical literature. Their data showed that skill in controlling misplaced efforts was positively related to clinical improvement. Last, they wrote The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Functional Disorders (1974) that outlined their treatment of functional disorders.[85] Wolf (1983) integrated EMG biofeedback into physical therapy to treat stroke patients and conducted landmark stroke outcome studies.[86] Peper (1997) applied SEMG to the workplace, studied the ergonomics of computer use, and promoted "healthy computing."[87] Taub (1999, 2006) demonstrated the clinical efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for the treatment of spinal cord-injured and stroke patients.[88][89] Cardiovascular system Shearn (1962) operantly trained human subjects to increase their heart rates by 5 beats-per-minute to avoid electric shock.[90] In contrast to Shearn's slight heart rate increases, Swami Rama used yoga to produce atrial flutter at an average 306 beats per minute before a Menninger Foundation audience. This briefly stopped his heart's pumping of blood and silenced his pulse.[69] Engel and Chism (1967) operantly trained subjects to decrease, aumentar, and then decrease their heart rates (this was analogous to ON-OFF-ON EEG training). He then used this approach to teach patients to control their rate of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), where the ventricles contract too soon. Engel conceptualized this training protocol as illness onset training, since patients were taught to produce and then suppress a symptom.[91] Peper has similarly taught asthmatics to wheeze to better control their breathing.[92] Schwartz (1971, 1972) examined whether specific patterns of cardiovascular activity are easier to learn than others due to biological constraints. He examined the constraints on learning integrated (two autonomic responses change in the same direction) and differentiated (two autonomic responses change inversely) patterns of blood pressure and heart rate change.[93] Schultz and Luthe (1969) developed Autogenic Training, which is a deep relaxation exercise derived from hypnosis. This procedure combines passive volition with imagery in a series of three treatment procedures (standard Autogenic exercises, Autogenic neutralization, and Autogenic meditation). Clinicians at the Menninger Foundation coupled an abbreviated list of standard exercises with thermal biofeedback to create autogenic biofeedback.[94] Luthe (1973) also published a series of six volumes titled Autogenic therapy.[95] Fahrion and colleagues (1986) reported on an 18-26 session treatment program for hypertensive patients. The Menninger program combined breathing modification, autogenic biofeedback for the hands and feet, and frontal EMG training. The authors reported that 89% of their medication patients discontinued or reduced medication by one-half while significantly lowering blood pressure. While this study did not include a double-blind control, the outcome rate was impressive.[96] Freedman and colleagues (1991) demonstrated that hand-warming and hand-cooling are produced by different mechanisms. The primary hand-warming mechanism is beta-adrenergic (hormonal), while the main hand-cooling mechanism is alpha-adrenergic and involves sympathetic C-fibers. This contradicts the traditional view that finger blood flow is exclusively controlled by sympathetic C-fibers. The traditional model asserts that when firing is slow, hands warm; when firing is rapid, hands cool. Freedman and colleagues’ studies support the view that hand-warming and hand-cooling represent entirely different skills.[97] Vaschillo and colleagues (1983) published the first studies of HRV biofeedback with cosmonauts and treated patients diagnosed with psychiatric and psychophysiological disorders.[98][99] Lehrer collaborated with Smetankin and Potapova in treating pediatric asthma patients[100] and published influential articles on HRV asthma treatment in the medical journal Chest.[101] Pain Muscle pain Budzynski and Stoyva (1969) showed that EMG biofeedback could reduce frontalis muscle (forehead) contraction.[102] They demonstrated in 1973 that analog (proporcional) and binary (ON or OFF) visual EMG biofeedback were equally helpful in lowering masseter SEMG levels.[103] McNulty, Gevirtz, Hubbard, and Berkoff (1994) proposed that sympathetic nervous system innervation of muscle spindles underlies trigger points.[104] Tension headache Budzynski, Stoyva, Adler, and Mullaney (1973) reported that auditory frontalis EMG biofeedback combined with home relaxation practice lowered tension headache frequency and frontalis EMG levels. A control group that received noncontingent (false) auditory feedback did not improve. This study helped make the frontalis muscle the placement-of-choice in EMG assessment and treatment of headache and other psychophysiological disorders.[105] Migraine Sargent, Verde, and Walters (1972, 1973) demonstrated that hand-warming could abort migraines and that autogenic biofeedback training could reduce headache activity. The early Menninger migraine studies, although methodologically weak (no pretreatment baselines, control groups, or random assignment to conditions), strongly influenced migraine treatment.[106][107] Un 2013 review classified biofeedback among the techniques that might be of benefit in the management of chronic migraine. [108][non-primary source needed] Phantom-limb pain Flor (2002) trained amputees to detect the location and frequency of shocks delivered to their stumps, which resulted in an expansion of corresponding cortical regions and significant reduction of their phantom limb pain.[109] Stress reduction A randomized study by Sutarto et al. assessed the effect of resonant breathing biofeedback (recognize and control involuntary heart rate variability) among manufacturing operators; depresión, anxiety and stress significantly decreased.[110][non-primary source needed] Macular disease of the retina A 2012 observational study by Pacella et al. found a significant improvement in both visual acuity and fixation treating patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration or macular myopic degeneration with biofeedback treatment through MP-1 microperimeter.[111][non-primary source needed] Clinical effectiveness Research Moss, LeVaque, and Hammond (2004) observed that “Biofeedback and neurofeedback seem to offer the kind of evidence-based practice that the health care establishment is demanding."[112][113] "From the beginning biofeedback developed as a research-based approach emerging directly from laboratory research on psychophysiology and behavior therapy, The ties of biofeedback/neurofeedback to the biomedical paradigm and to research are stronger than is the case for many other behavioral interventions” (p. 151).[114] The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) have collaborated in validating and rating treatment protocols to address questions about the clinical efficacy of biofeedback and neurofeedback applications, like ADHD and headache. En 2001, Donald Moss, then president of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Jay Gunkelman, president of the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, appointed a task force to establish standards for the efficacy of biofeedback and neurofeedback. The Task Force document was published in 2002,[115] and a series of white papers followed, reviewing the efficacy of a series of disorders.[116] The white papers established the efficacy of biofeedback for functional anorectal disorders,[117] attention deficit disorder,[118] facial pain and temporomandibular joint dysfunction,[119] hipertensión,[120] urinary incontinence,[121] Raynaud's phenomenon,[122] Abuso,[123] and headache.[124] A broader review was published[125] and later updated,[9] applying the same efficacy standards to the entire range of medical and psychological disorders. los 2008 edition reviewed the efficacy of biofeedback for over 40 clinical disorders, ranging from alcoholism/substance abuse to vulvar vestibulitis. The ratings for each disorder depend on the nature of research studies available on each disorder, ranging from anecdotal reports to double blind studies with a control group. Así, a lower rating may reflect the lack of research rather than the ineffectiveness of biofeedback for the problem. The randomized trial by Dehli et al. compared if the injection of a bulking agent in the anal canal was superior to sphincter training with biofeedback to treat fecal incontinence. Both methods lead to an improvement of FI, but comparisons of St Mark's scores between the groups showed no differences in effect between treatments.[126] Efficacy Yucha and Montgomery's (2008) ratings are listed for the five levels of efficacy recommended by a joint Task Force and adopted by the Boards of Directors of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology (AAPB) and the International Society for Neuronal Regulation (ISNR).[115] From weakest to strongest, these levels include: not empirically supported, possibly efficacious, probably efficacious, efficacious, and efficacious and specific. Nivel 1: Not empirically supported. This designation includes applications supported by anecdotal reports and/or case studies in non-peer reviewed venues. Yucha and Montgomery (2008) assigned eating disorders, immune function, lesión de la médula espinal, and syncope to this category.[9] Nivel 2: Possibly efficacious. This designation requires at least one study of sufficient statistical power with well identified outcome measures but lacking randomized assignment to a control condition internal to the study. Yucha and Montgomery (2008) assigned asthma, autism, Bell palsy, parálisis cerebral, COPD, coronary artery disease, cystic fibrosis, depresión, disfuncion erectil, fibromialgia, hand dystonia, irritable bowel syndrome, PTSD, repetitive strain injury, respiratory failure, Golpe, acúfeno, and urinary incontinence in children to this category.[9] Nivel 3: Probably efficacious. This designation requires multiple observational studies, clinical studies, wait list controlled studies, and within subject and intrasubject replication studies that demonstrate efficacy. Yucha and Montgomery (2008) assigned alcoholism and substance abuse, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, fecal disorders in children, fecal incontinence in adults, insomnio, pediatric headache, traumatic brain injury, urinary incontinence in males, and vulvar vestibulitis (vulvodynia) to this category.[9] Nivel 4: Efficacious. This designation requires the satisfaction of six criteria: (un) In a comparison with a no-treatment control group, alternative treatment group, or sham (placebo) control using randomized assignment, the investigational treatment is shown to be statistically significantly superior to the control condition or the investigational treatment is equivalent to a treatment of established efficacy in a study with sufficient power to detect moderate differences. (b) The studies have been conducted with a population treated for a specific problem, for whom inclusion criteria are delineated in a reliable, operationally defined manner. (c) The study used valid and clearly specified outcome measures related to the problem being treated. (d) The data are subjected to appropriate data analysis. (e) The diagnostic and treatment variables and procedures are clearly defined in a manner that permits replication of the study by independent researchers. (F) The superiority or equivalence of the investigational treatment has been shown in at least two independent research settings. Yucha and Montgomery (2008) assigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (TDAH), ansiedad, chronic pain, epilepsia, constipation (adulto), dolor de cabeza (adulto), hipertensión, motion sickness, Raynaud's disease, and tempromandibular joint dysfunction to this category.[9] Nivel 5: Efficacious and specific. The investigational treatment must be shown to be statistically superior to credible sham therapy, pill, or alternative bona fide treatment in at least two independent research settings. Yucha and Montgomery (2008) assigned urinary incontinence (females) to this category.[9] Criticisms In a health care environment that emphasizes cost containment and evidence-based practice, biofeedback and neurofeedback professionals continue to address skepticism in the medical community about the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of their treatments. Critics question how these treatments compare with conventional behavioral and medical interventions on efficacy and cost. The publication of white papers and rigorous evaluation of biofeedback interventions can address these legitimate questions and educate medical professionals, third-party payers, and the public about the value of these services.[127] Organizations The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) is a non-profit scientific and professional society for biofeedback and neurofeedback. The International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) is a non-profit scientific and professional society for neurofeedback. The Biofeedback Foundation of Europe (BFE) sponsors international education, capacitación, and research activities in biofeedback and neurofeedback.[37] The Northeast Regional Biofeedback Association (NRBS) sponsors theme centered educational conferences, political advocacy for biofeedback friendly legislation, and research activities in biofeedback and neurofeedback in the Northeast regions of the United States. The Southeast Biofeedback and Clinical Neuroscience Association (SBCNA) is a non-profit regional organization supporting biofeedback professionals with continuing education, ethics guidelines and public awareness promoting the efficacy and safety of professional biofeedback. The SBCNA offers an Annual Conference for professional continuing education as well as promoting biofeedback as an adjunct to the allied health professions. The SBCNA was formally the North Carolina Biofeedback Society (NCBS), serving Biofeedback since the 1970's. En 2013, the NCBS reorganized as the SBCNA supporting and representing biofeedback and neurofeedback in the Southeast Region of the United States of America.[cita necesaria] Certification The Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (formerly the Biofeedback Certification Institute of America) is a non-profit organization that is a member of the Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE). BCIA offers biofeedback certification, neurofeedback (also called EEG biofeedback) certification, and pelvic muscle dysfunction biofeedback. BCIA certifies individuals who meet education and training standards in biofeedback and neurofeedback and progressively recertifies those who satisfy continuing education requirements. BCIA certification has been endorsed by the Mayo Clinic,[128] the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB), the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR),[37] and the Washington State Legislature.[129] The BCIA didactic education requirement includes a 48-hour course from a regionally-accredited academic institution or a BCIA-approved training program that covers the complete General Biofeedback Blueprint of Knowledge and study of human anatomy and physiology. The General Biofeedback Blueprint of Knowledge areas include: Yo. Orientation to Biofeedback, II. Estrés, Albardilla, and Illness, III. Psychophysiological Recording, IV. Surface Electromyographic (SEMG) Aplicaciones, V. Autonomic Nervous System (Respuesta) Aplicaciones, VI. electroencefalográfico (EEG) Aplicaciones, VII. Adjunctive Interventions, and VIII. Professional Conduct.[130] Applicants may demonstrate their knowledge of human anatomy and physiology by completing a course in human anatomy, human physiology, or human biology provided by a regionally-accredited academic institution or a BCIA-approved training program or by successfully completing an Anatomy and Physiology exam covering the organization of the human body and its systems. Applicants must also document practical skills training that includes 20 contact hours supervised by a BCIA-approved mentor designed to them teach how to apply clinical biofeedback skills through self-regulation training, 50 patient/client sessions, and case conference presentations. Distance learning allows applicants to complete didactic course work over the internet. Distance mentoring trains candidates from their residence or office.[131] They must recertify every 4 años, completo 55 hours of continuing education during each review period or complete the written exam, and attest that their license/credential (or their supervisor’s license/credential) has not been suspended, investigated, or revoked.[132] Pelvic muscle dysfunction Pelvic Muscle Dysfunction Biofeedback (PMDB) encompasses "elimination disorders and chronic pelvic pain syndromes."[133] The BCIA didactic education requirement includes a 28-hour course from a regionally-accredited academic institution or a BCIA-approved training program that covers the complete Pelvic Muscle Dysfunction Biofeedback Blueprint of Knowledge and study of human anatomy and physiology. The Pelvic Muscle Dysfunction Biofeedback areas include: Yo. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, II. Pelvic Floor Anatomy, Evaluación, and Clinical Procedures, III. Clinical Disorders: Bladder Dysfunction, IV. Clinical Disorders: Bowel Dysfunction, and V. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes. Actualmente, only licensed health care providers may apply for this certification. Applicants must also document practical skills training that includes a 4-hour practicum/personal training session and 12 contact hours spent with a BCIA-approved mentor designed to teach them how to apply clinical biofeedback skills through 30 patient/client sessions and case conference presentations. They must recertify every 3 años, completo 36 hours of continuing education or complete the written exam, and attest that their license/credential has not been suspended, investigated or revoked.[132] [134] History Claude Bernard proposed in 1865 that the body strives to maintain a steady state in the internal environment (milieu intérieur), introducing the concept of homeostasis.[135] En 1885, J.R. Tarchanoff showed that voluntary control of heart rate could be fairly direct (cortical-autonomic) and did not depend on "infiel" by altering breathing rate.[136] En 1901, J. H. Bair studied voluntary control of the retrahens aurem muscle that wiggles the ear, discovering that subjects learned this skill by inhibiting interfering muscles and demonstrating that skeletal muscles are self-regulated.[137] Alexander Graham Bell attempted to teach the deaf to speak through the use of two devices — the phonautograph, created by Édouard-Léon Scott’s, and a manometric flame. The former translated sound vibrations into tracings on smoked glass to show their acoustic waveforms, while the latter allowed sound to be displayed as patterns of light.[138] After World War II, mathematician Norbert Wiener developed cybernetic theory, that proposed that systems are controlled by monitoring their results.[139] The participants at the landmark 1969 conference at the Surfrider Inn in Santa Monica coined the term biofeedback from Wiener's feedback. The conference resulted in the founding of the Bio-Feedback Research Society, which permitted normally isolated researchers to contact and collaborate with each other, as well as popularizing the term “biofeedback.”[140] The work of B.F. Skinner led researchers to apply operant conditioning to biofeedback, decide which responses could be voluntarily controlled and which could not. The effects of the perception of autonomic nervous system activity was initially explored by George Mandler's group in 1958. En 1965, Maia Lisina combined classical and operant conditioning to train subjects to change blood vessel diameter, eliciting and displaying reflexive blood flow changes to teach subjects how to voluntarily control the temperature of their skin.[141] En 1974, H.D. Kimmel trained subjects to sweat using the galvanic skin response.[142] hinduismo: Biofeedback systems have been known in India and some other countries for millennia. Ancient Hindu practices like Yoga and Pranayama (Breathing techniques)are essentially biofeedback methods. Many yogis and sadhus have been known to exercise control over their physiological processes. In addition to recent research on Yoga, Paul Brunton, the British writer who travelled extensively in India, has written about many cases he has witnessed. Timeline 1958 - G. Mandler's group studied the process of autonomic feedback and its effects.[143] 1962 - D. Shearn used feedback instead of conditioned stimuli to change heart rate.[144] 1962 - Publication of Muscles Alive by John Basmajian and Carlo De Luca[145] 1968 - Annual Veteran's Administration research meeting in Denver that brought together several biofeedback researchers 1969 - Abril: Conference on Altered States of Consciousness, Council Grove, KS; Octubre: formation and first meeting of the Biofeedback Research Society (BRS), Surfrider Inn, Santa Mónica, California; co-founder Barbara B. Brown becomes the society's first president 1972 - Review and analysis of early biofeedback studies by D. Shearn in the 'Handbook of Psychophysiology'.[146] 1974 - Publication of The Alpha Syllabus: A Handbook of Human EEG Alpha Activity[147] and the first popular book on biofeedback, New Mind, New Body[148] (Diciembre), both by Barbara B. Marrón 1975 - American Association of Biofeedback Clinicians founded; publication of The Biofeedback Syllabus: A Handbook for the Psychophysiologic Study of Biofeedback by Barbara B. Marrón[149] 1976 - BRS renamed the Biofeedback Society of America (BSA) 1977 - Publication of Beyond Biofeedback by Elmer and Alyce Green[69] and Biofeedback: Methods and Procedures in Clinical Practice by George Fuller[150] and Stress and The Art of Biofeedback by Barbara B. Marrón[151] 1978 - Publication of Biofeedback: A Survey of the Literature by Francine Butler[152] 1979 - Publication of Biofeedback: Principles and Practice for Clinicians by John Basmajian[153] and Mind/Body Integration: Essential Readings in Biofeedback by Erik Peper, Sonia Ancoli, and Michele Quinn[154] 1980 - First national certification examination in biofeedback offered by the Biofeedback Certification Institute of America (BCIA); publication of Biofeedback: Clinical Applications in Behavioral Medicine by David Olton and Aaron Noonberg[155] and Supermind: The Ultimate Energy by Barbara B. Marrón[156] 1984 - Publication of Principles and Practice of Stress Management by Woolfolk and Lehrer[157] and Between Health and Illness: New Notions on Stress and the Nature of Well Being by Barbara B. Marrón[158] 1987 - Publication of Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide by Mark Schwartz[159] 1989 - BSA renamed the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 1991 - First national certification examination in stress management offered by BCIA 1994 - Brain Wave and EMG sections established within AAPB 1995 - Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation (SSNR) founded 1996 - Biofeedback Foundation of Europe (BFE) established 1999 - SSNR renamed the Society for Neuronal Regulation (SNR) 2002 - SNR renamed the International Society for Neuronal Regulation (iSNR) 2003 - Publication of The Neurofeedback Book by Thompson and Thompson[160] 2004 - Publication of Evidence-Based Practice in Biofeedback and Neurofeedback by Carolyn Yucha and Christopher Gilbert[161] 2006 - ISNR renamed the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) 2008 - Biofeedback Neurofeedback Alliance formed to pool the resources of the AAPB, BCIA, and ISNR on joint initiatives 2008 - Biofeedback Alliance and Nomenclature Task Force define biofeedback 2009 - The International Society for Neurofeedback & Research defines neurofeedback[162] 2010 - Biofeedback Certification Institute of America renamed the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA) See also Biofeedback training Conditioning Reinforcement Respiratory resistance biofeedback Stimulation Footnotes ↑ Durand, Vincent Mark; Barlow, David (2009). Abnormal psychology: an integrative approach, 331, Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. ↑ Saltar hasta: 2.0 2.1 2.2 What is biofeedback?. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. URL a la que se accede en 2010-02-22.{{enlace muerto}} ↑ deCharms RC, Maeda F, Glover GH, et al. (Diciembre 2005). Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI. proceso. nacional. Acad. Sci. EE.UU. 102 (51): 18626–31. ↑ Nestoriuc Y, Martin A (Marzo 2007). Efficacy of biofeedback for migraine: a meta-analysis. Dolor 128 (1–2): 111–27. ↑ Nestoriuc Y, Martin A, Rief W, Andrasik F (Septiembre 2008). Biofeedback treatment for headache disorders: a comprehensive efficacy review. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 33 (3): 125–40. ↑ Tassinary, L. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Vanman, E. J. (2007). The skeletomotor system: Surface electromyography. En J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson, (Eds.). Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed.). Nueva York: Cambridge University Press. ↑ Florimond, V. (2009). Basics of surface electromyography applied to physical rehabilitation and biomechanics. Montreal: Thought Technology Ltd. ↑ Peper, E; Gibney KH (2006). Muscle biofeedback at the computer: A manual to prevent repetitive strain injury (RSI) by taking the guesswork out of assessment, monitoring, and training (PDF), Amersfoort, Los países bajos: BFE. ↑ Saltar hasta: 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 Yucha, C; Montgomery D (2008). Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback (PDF), Wheat Ridge, CO: AAPB. ↑ Forward, Edna (Abril, 1972). Patient Evaluation with an Audio Electromyogram Monitor: "The Muscle Whistler". Physical Therapy 52 (4): 402–403. ↑ Saltar hasta: 11.0 11.1 Andreassi, J. L. (2007). Psicofisiología: Human behavior and physiological response (5ª ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Inc. ↑ Cohen, R. Un., & Coffman, J. D. (1981). Beta-adrenergic vasodilator mechanism in the finger, Circulation Research, 49, 1196-1201 ↑ Freedman R. R., Sabharwal S. C., Ianni P., Desai N., Wenig P., Mayes M. (1988). Nonneural beta-adrenergic vasodilating mechanism in temperature biofeedback. Medicina Psicosomática 50 (4): 394–401. ↑ Dawson, M. E., Schell, Un. M., & Filion, D. L. (2007). The electrodermal system. En J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.). Handbook of psychophysiology (3Rd) Ed.). Nueva York: Cambridge University Press. ↑ Moss, D. (2003). The anxiety disorders. En D. Moss, D., Un. McGrady, T. davies, & I. Wickramasekera (Eds.), Handbook of mind-body medicine in primary care (páginas. 359-375). mil robles, California: Sage. ↑ Saltar hasta: 16.0 16.1 Toomim M., Toomim H. (1975). Primavera). GSR biofeedback in psychotherapy: Some clinical observations. Psicoterapia: Teoría, Investigar, and Practice 12 (1): 33–38. ↑ Moss D (2005). Psychophysiological psychotherapy: The use of biofeedback, biological monitoring, and stress management principles in psychotherapy. Psychophysiology Today: the Magazine for Mind-Body Medicine 2 (1): 14–18. ↑ Pennebaker J. W., Chew C. H. (1985). Behavioral inhibition and electrodermal activity during deception. Revista de Personalidad y Psicología Social 49 (5): 1427–1433. ↑ Kropotov, J. D. (2009). Quantitative EEG, event-related potentials and neurotherapy. San Diego, California: Prensa Académica. ↑ Saltar hasta: 20.0 20.1 20.2 Thompson, M., & Thompson, L. (2003). The biofeedback book: An introduction to basic concepts in applied psychophysiology. Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. ↑ Saltar hasta: 21.0 21.1 Popa, R. M., Ray, W. J., & Quigley, K. S. (2001). Psychophysiological recording (2nd ed.). Nueva York: Oxford University Press. ↑ LaVaque, T. J. (2003). Neurofeedback, Neurotherapy, and quantitative EEG. En D. Moss, Un. McGrady, T. davies, & I. Wickramasekera (editoriales), Handbook of mind-body medicine for primary care (páginas. 123-136). mil robles, California: Sage. ↑ Steriade, M. (2005). Cellular substrates of brain rhythms. In E. Niedermeyer and F. Lopes da Silva (Eds.). Electroencefalografía: Basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields (5ª ed.). Filadelfia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ↑ Saltar hasta: 24.0 24.1 Shaffer, F., & Moss, D. (2006). Biofeedback. In C. S. Yuan, E. J. Bieber, & B.A. Bauer (Ed.), Textbook of complementary and alternative medicine (2nd ed.) (páginas. 291-312). Abingdon, Oxfordshire, REINO UNIDO: Informa Healthcare. ↑ T. H. Budzynski, H. K. Budzynski, J. R. Evans, & A. Abarbanel (Eds.) (2009). Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback (2nd ed.). Burlington, MAMÁ: Prensa Académica. ↑ Saltar hasta: 26.0 26.1 Combatalade, D. (2009). Basics of heart rate variability applied to psychophysiology. Montreal, Canadá: Thought Technology Ltd. ↑ Saltar hasta: 27.0 27.1 Lehrer, P. M. (2007). Biofeedback training to increase heart rate variability. En p. M. Lehrer, R. M. Woolfolk, & W. E. Sime (Eds.). Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). Nueva York: The Guilford Press. ↑ Peper E., Harvey R., Lin I., Tylova H., Moss D. (2007). Is there more to blood volume pulse than heart rate variability, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cardio-respiratory synchrony?. Biofeedback 35 (2): 54–61. ↑ Berntson, G. G., Quigley, K. S., & Lozano, D. (2007). Cardiovascular psychophysiology. En J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson, (Eds.). Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed.). Nueva York: Cambridge University Press. ↑ Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (1996). Heart rate variability: Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation, 93, 1043-1065. ↑ Lehrer P. M., Vaschillo E., Vaschillo B., Lu S. E., Scardella A., Siddique M. et al. (2004). Biofeedback as a treatment for asthma. Chest 126 (2): 352–361. ↑ Giardino N. D., Chan L., Borson S. (2004). Combined heart rate variability and pulse oximetry biofeedback for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Conclusiones preliminares. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 29 (2): 121–133. ↑ Karavidas M. K., Lehrer P. M., Vaschillo E. G., Vaschillo B., Marin H., Buyske S. et al. (2007). Preliminary results of an open-label study of heart rate variability biofeedback for the treatment of major depression. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 32 (1): 19–30. ↑ Hassett A. L., Radvanski D. C., Vaschillo E. G., Vaschillo B., Sigal L. H., Karavidas M. K. et al. (2007). A pilot study of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 32 (1): 1–10. ↑ Cowan M. J., Pike K. C., Budzynski H. K. (2001). Psychosocial nursing therapy following sudden cardiac arrest: Impact on two-year survival. Nursing Research 50 (2): 68–76. ↑ Humphreys P., Gevirtz R. (2000). Treatment of recurrent abdominal pain: Components analysis of four treatment protocols. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31 (1): 47–51. ↑ Saltar hasta: 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 Peper, E., Tylova, H., Gibney, K. H., harvey, R., & Combatalade, D. (2008). Biofeedback mastery: An experiential teaching and self-training manual. Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. ↑ Lehrer P. M., Vaschillo E., Vaschillo B. (2000). Resonant frequency biofeedback training to increase cardiac variability: Rationale and manual for training. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 25 (3): 177–191. ↑ Saltar hasta: 39.0 39.1 Fried, R. (1987). The hyperventilation syndrome: Research and clinical treatment. Baltimore: Prensa de la Universidad Johns Hopkins. ↑ Fried, R. (1993). The psychology and physiology of breathing. Nueva York: Prensa Plenum. ↑ Tokarev V.E. "A Rheoencephalogram (REG) Variability System Based on ISKRA-226 Personal Computer", Institute for Complex Problem of Hygiene Healthcare Conference, Novokuznetsk, Russia, 1989, p.115-116. ↑ Tokarev V.E. "Regulatory Mechanisms of Physiological Systems During REG Biofeedback", 25th Annual Meeting of Association of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Atlanta, ESTADOS UNIDOS, 1994 ↑ Toomim, H., & Carmen, J. (2009). Homoencephalography: Photon-based blood flow neurofeedback. In T. H. Budzynski, H. K. Budzynski, J. R. Evans, & A. Abarbanel (Eds.) (2009). Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback (2nd ed.). Burlington, MAMÁ: Prensa Académica. ↑ Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning theory and behavior. Nueva York: Wiley. ↑ Perry, J. D., & Talcott, L. B. (1989). The Kegel Perineometer: Biofeedback Twenty Years Before Its Time. Un "Special Historical Paper." Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, San Diego, California, 169-172. ↑ Hirakawa, T, Suzuki, S; Kato, K; Gotoh, M; Yoshikawa, Y (2013-01-11). Randomized controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback for urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J.. ↑ Fitz, Fátima Faní, Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Stüpp, Liliana; Costa, Thaís Fonseca; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Castro, Rodrigo Aquino (Noviembre 2012). Efeito da adição do biofeedback ao treinamento dos músculos do assoalho pélvico para tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço [Effect the adding of biofeedback to the training of the pelvic floor muscles to treatment of stress urinary incontinence]. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia [Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet.] 34 (11): vol.34 no.11 505–10. ↑ 3Olah et al, The conservative management of patients with symptoms of stress incontinence: a randomized, prospective study comparing weighted vaginal cones and interferential therapy" Am J Obstet Gynecol1990 Jan;162(1) 87-92 ↑ Busby-Whitehead , Johnson T., Clarke M. K. (1996). Biofeedback for the treatment of stress and urge incontinence. The Journal of Urology 156 (2). ↑ Saltar hasta: 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Norton, C, Cody, JD (2012 Jul 11). Biofeedback and/or sphincter exercises for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults.. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (En línea) 7: CD002111. ↑ Caton R (1875). The electric currents of the brain. Revista Médica Británica 2. ↑ Saltar hasta: 52.0 52.1 Brazier M. Un. B. (1959). The EEG in epilepsy: A historical note. Epilepsia 1 (1–5): 328–336. ↑ Coenen A. M. L., Zajachkivsky O., Bilski R. (1998). Scientific priority of A. Beck in the neurophysiology. Experimental and Clinical Physiology and Biochemistry 1: 105–109. ↑ Sherrington, C. S. (1906). The integrative action of the nervous system. nuevo refugio, Connecticut: Prensa de la Universidad de Yale. ↑ Pravdich-Neminsky V. V. (1913). Ein versuch der registrierung der elektrischen gehirnerscheinungen. Zbl Physiol 27: 951–960. ↑ Forbes A., Mann D. W. (1924). A revolving mirror for use with the string galvanometer. J. Opt. Soc. AM. Un 8 (6): 807–816. ↑ Berger H (1920). Ueber das elektroenkephalogramm des menschen. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 87: 527–570. ↑ Adrian E. D., Mathews B. H. C. (1934). The Berger rhythm. Cerebro 57 (4): 355–385. ↑ Bremer F (1935). Cerveau isole et physiologie du sommeil. Com. Ren. Soc. Bio., (París) 118: 1235–1241. ↑ Bladin P. F. (2006). W. Grey Walter, pioneer in the electroencephalogram, robotics, cibernética, inteligencia artificial. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 13 (2): 170–177. ↑ Kleitman N (1960). Patterns of dreaming. Científico americano 203 (5): 82–88. ↑ Dement, W. (2000). The promise of Sleep: A pioneer in sleep medicine explores the vital connection between health, happiness, and a good night’s sleep. Nueva York: Random House. ↑ Andersen, PAGS., & Andersson, S. (1968). A physiological basis of the alpha rhythm. Nueva York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ↑ Kamiya, J. (1969). Operant control of the EEG alpha rhythm. In C. Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness. NY: Wiley. ↑ Marrón, B. (1974). New mind, new body. Nueva York: Harper & Row. ↑ Marrón, B. (1977). Stress and the art of biofeedback. Nueva York: Harper & Row. ↑ Marrón, B. (1980). Supermind: The ultimate energy. Nueva York: Harper & Row. ↑ Mulholland T., Peper E. (1971). Occipital alpha and accommodative vergence, pursuit tracking, and fast eye movements. Psicofisiología 8 (5): 556–575. ↑ Saltar hasta: 69.0 69.1 69.2 Verde, E., & Green, Un. (1977). Beyond biofeedback. San Francisco: Delacorte Press. ↑ Sterman M. B. (1973). Neurophysiologic and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Seminars in Psychiatry 5: 507–524. ↑ Birbaumer N., Elbert T., Lutzenberger W., Rockstroh B., Schwarz J. (1981). EEG and slow cortical potentials in anticipation of mental tasks with different hemispheric involvement. Biol Psychol 13: 251–260. ↑ Lubar, J. F. (1989). Electroencephalographic biofeedback and neurological applications. En J. V. Basmajian (Ed.), Biofeedback: Principles and practice for clinicians (3rd ed.), páginas. 67-90. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. ↑ Food and Drug Administration (2013-07-15). FDA permits marketing of first brain wave test to help assess children and teens for ADHD. Comunicado de prensa. Recuperado el 2013-09-18. ↑ Feré, C., Note sur les modifications de la tension e1ectrique dans le corps human, Compt. rend. Soc. biol., 5 23. ↑ Tarchanoff J (1890). Uber die galvanischen Erscheinungen an der Haut des Menschen bei Relzung der Sinnesorgane und bei verschiedenen Formen der psychischen Tatigkeit. Arco. Ges. Physiol 46. ↑ Peterson F., Jung C. G. (1907). Psycho-physical investigations with the galvanometer and pneumograph in normal and insane individuals. Cerebro 30 (2): 153–218. ↑ Mayer, Victor, Reich (june 1978). Anxiety management--the marriage of physiological and cognitive variables. Behaviour Research & Therapy 16 (3): 177–182. ↑ Jacobson, E. (1938). Progressive relaxation. Chicago: Prensa de la Universidad de Chicago. ↑ Lindsley D. B. (1935). Characteristics of single motor unit responses in human muscle during various degrees of contraction. American Journal of Physiology 113: 88–89. ↑ Harrison V. F., Mortenson O. Un. (1962). Identification and voluntary control of single motor unit activity in the tibialis anterior muscle. Anatomical Record 144 (2): 109–116. ↑ Basmajian, J. V. (1967). Muscles alive: Their functions revealed by electromyography. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. ↑ Marinacci A. Un. (1960). Lower motor neuron disorders superimposed on the residuals of poliomyelitis. Value of the electromyogram in differential diagnosis. Boletín de la Sociedad Neurológica de Los Ángeles 25. ↑ Peper, E., & Shaffer, F. (en prensa). Biofeedback history: An alternative view. Biofeedback. ↑ Whatmore G., Kohli D. (1968). Dysponesis: A neuropsychologic factor in functional disorders. Behavioral Science 13 (2): 102–124. ↑ Whatmore, G., & Kohli, D. (1974). The physiopathology and treatment of functional disorders. Nueva York: Grune & Stratton. ↑ Wolf S. L. (1983). Electromyographic biofeedback applications to stroke patients. A critical review. Phys Ther 63 (9): 1448–1459. ↑ Shumay, D. and Peper, E. (1997). Healthy computing: A comprehensive group training approach using biofeedback. In G. Salvendy, M. J. Herrero, & R. J. Koubek (editoriales). Design of computing systems: Cognitive considerations. Nueva York: Elsevier. ↑ Taub E., Uswatte G., Pidikiti R. (1999). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: A new family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation—A clinic review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 36 (3): 237–251. ↑ Taub E., Uswatte G., King D. K., Morris D., Crago J., Chatterjee A. (2006). A placebo controlled trial of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for upper extremity after stroke. Stroke 37 (4): 1045–1049. ↑ Shearn D. W. (1962). Operant conditioning of heart rate. Ciencia 137 (3529): 530–531. ↑ Engel B. T., Chism R. Un. (1967). Operant conditioning of heart rate speeding. Psicofisiología 3 (4): 418–426. ↑ mi. Peper, S. Ancoli, & M. Quinn (Eds.). (1979). Mind/Body integration: Essential readings in biofeedback. Nueva York: Prensa Plenum. ↑ Schwartz G. E. (1971). Learned control of cardiovascular integration in man. Medicina Psicosomática 33 (1): 57–62. ↑ Schultz, J. H., & Luthe, W. (1969). Autogenic therapy: Autogenic methods. Nueva York: Grune & Stratton. ↑ Luthe, W. (1973). Autogenic therapy: Treatment with autogenic neutralization. Nueva York: Grune & Stratton. ↑ Fahrion S., Norris P., Green A., Green E. et al. (1986). Biobehavioral treatment of essential hypertension: A group outcome study. Biofeedback-and-Self-Regulation 11 (4): 257–277. ↑ Freedman R. R., Keegan D., Migaly P., Galloway M. PAGS., Mayes M. (1991). Plasma catecholamines during behavioral treatments for Raynaud's Disease. Medicina Psicosomática 53 (4): 433–439. ↑ Vaschillo E. G., Zingerman A. M., Konstantinov M. Un., Menitsky D. N. (1983). Research of the resonance characteristics for the cardiovascular system. Human Physiology 9: 257–265. ↑ Chernigovskaya N. V., Vaschillo E. G., Petrash V. V., Rusanovsky V. V. (1990). Voluntary regulation of the heart rate as a method of functioning condition correction in neurotics. Human Physiology 16: 58–64. ↑ Lehrer P. M., Smetankin A., Potapova T. (2000). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback therapy for asthma: A report of 20 unmedicated pediatric cases using the Smetankin method. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 25 (3): 193–200. ↑ Lehrer P., Vaschillo E., Lu S. E., Eckberg D., Vaschillo B., Scardella A., Habib R. (2006). Heart rate variability biofeedback: Effects of age on heart rate variability, baroreflex gain, and asthma. Chest 129 (2): 278–284. ↑ Budzynski T. H., Stoyva J. M. (1969). An instrument for producing deep muscle relaxation by means of analog information feedback. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2 (4): 231–237. ↑ Budzynski T. H., Stoyva J. M. (1973). An electromyographic technique for teaching voluntary relaxation of the masseter muscle. Journal of Dental Research 52 (1): 116–119. ↑ McNulty W. H., Gevirtz R. N., Hubbard D., Berkoff G. M. (1994). Needle electromyographic evaluation of trigger point response to a psychological stressor. Psicofisiología 31 (3): 313–316. ↑ Budzynski, T. H., Stoyva, J. M., Adler, C. S., & Mullaney, D. EMG biofeedback and tension headache: A controlled-outcome study. Medicina Psicosomática, 35, 484-496. ↑ Sargent J. D., Green E. E., Walters E. D. (1972). The use of autogenic feedback training in a pilot study of migraine and tension headaches. Headache 12 (3): 120–124. ↑ Sargent J. D., Walters E. D., Green E. E. (1972). Psychosomatic self-regulation of migraine headaches. Seminars in Psychiatry 5: 415–427. ↑ Evans, Rw (Enero 2013). A rational approach to the management of chronic migraine. Headache 53 (1): 168–76. ↑ Flor H (2002). Phantom-limb pain: characteristics, causes, and treatment. The Lancet, Neurología 1 (3): 182–189. ↑ Sutarto, AP, Wahab, MN; Zin NM (2012). Resonant breathing biofeedback training for stress reduction among manufacturing operators. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 18 (4): 549–61. ↑ Pacella, E (Noviembre 2012). Effectiveness of vision rehabilitation treatment through MP-1 microperimeter in patients with visual loss due to macular disease. Clin Ter 163 (6): 163(6):e423–8. ↑ Geyman, J. PAGS., Deyon, R. Un., & Ramsey, S. D. (editoriales). (2000). Evidence-based clinical practice: Concepts and approach. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. ↑ Sackett, D. L., Straus, S. E., richardson, W. S., Rosenberg, W., & Haynes, R. B. (Eds.). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. Edimburgo, Nueva York: Churchill Livingstone. ↑ Moss D., LaVaque T. J., Hammond D. C. (2004). Introduction to White Papers Series series—Guest editorial. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 29 (3): 151–152. ↑ Saltar hasta: 115.0 115.1 LaVaque T. J., Hammond D. C., Trudeau D., Monastra V., Perry J., Lehrer P., Matheson D., Sherman R. (2002). Template for developing guidelines for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of psychophysiological evaluations. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 27 (4): 273–281. ↑ Moss D., LaVaque T. J., Hammond D. C. (2004). Introduction to White Papers Series series -- Guest editorial. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 29 (3): 151–152. ↑ Palsson O. S., Heymen S., Whitehead W. E. (2004). Biofeedback treatment for functional anorectal disorders: A comprehensive efficacy review. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 29 (3): 153–174. ↑ Monastra V., Lynn S., Linden M., Lubar J. F., Gruzelier J., LaVaque T. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 30 (2): 95–114. ↑ Crider A., Glaros A. G., Gevirtz R. N. (2005). Efficacy of biofeedback-based treatments for temporomandibular disorders. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 30 (4): 333–345. ↑ Linden W., Moseley J. V. (2006). The efficacy of behavioral treatments for hypertension. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 31 (1): 51–63. ↑ Glazer H. Yo., C-lana. D. (2006). Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback in the treatment of urinary incontinence: Una revisión de la literatura. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 31 (3): 187–201. ↑ Karavidas M. K., Tsai P., Yucha C., McGrady A., Lehrer P. M. (2006). Thermal biofeedback for primary Raynaud's phenomenon: A review of the literature. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 31 (3): 203–216. ↑ Sokkhadze E. M., Cannon R. L., Trudeau D. (2008). EEG Biofeedback as a treatment for substance use disorders: Review, rating of efficacy and recommendations for further research. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 33 (1): 1–28. ↑ Nestoriuc Y., Martin A., Rief W., Andrasik F. (2008). Biofeedback treatment for headache disorders: A comprehensive efficacy review. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 33 (3): 125–40. ↑ Yucha, C., & Gilbert, C. (2004). Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. ↑ Sphincter training or anal injections of dextranomer for treatment of anal incontinence: a randomized trial. Trond Dehli, Arvid Stordahl, Lars J Vatten, Pål R Romundstad, Kjersti Mevik, Ylva Sahlin, Rolv O Lindsetmo, Barthold Vonen. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013 Ene 8. HTTP:// ↑ Moss, D., & Andrasik, F. (2008). Prefacio: Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback. In Yucha, C., & Montgomery, D. (2008). Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback (2nd ed.). Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. ↑ Neblett R., Shaffer F., Crawford J. (2008). What is the value of Biofeedback Certification Institute of America certification?. Biofeedback 36 (3): 92–94. ↑ [1] Washington State Legislature WAC 296-21-280 Biofeedback Rules. ↑ Gevirtz, R. (2003). The behavioral health provider in mind-body medicine. En D. Moss, Un. McGrady, T. C. davies, & I. Wickramasekera (Eds.). Handbook of mind-body medicine for primary care. mil robles, California: Publicaciones sabias, Inc. ↑ De Bease C (2007). Biofeedback Certification Institute of America certification: Building skills without walls. Biofeedback 35 (2): 48–49. ↑ Saltar hasta: 132.0 132.1 Shaffer, F., & Schwartz, M. S. (en prensa). Entering the field and assuring competence. En m. S. Schwartz, & F. Andrasik (Eds.). Biofeedback: A practitioner's guide (4ª ed.). Nueva York: The Guilford Press. ↑ Dickinson T (2006). BCIA certification for the biofeedback treatment of pelvic floor disorders. Biofeedback 34 (1). ↑ Mandler, Jorge, J.M. Mandler & E. T. Uviller (1958). Autonomic feedback: The perception of autonomic activity. Revista de Psicología Social y Anormal 56 (3): 367–373. ↑ Bernard C (1957 (1865)). An Introduction to the study of experimental medicine, Mineola, N.Y: Dover. ↑ Tarchanoff, JR (1885). [Voluntary acceleration of the heart beat in man]. Pfluger's Archive der gesamten Physiologie 35: 109–135. ↑ Bair, JH (1901). Development of voluntary control. Revisión psicológica 8 (5): 474–510. ↑ Bruce, Robert C. (1990). Campana: Alexander Graham Bell and the conquest of solitude, Ítaca, N.Y: Prensa de la Universidad de Cornell. ↑ Wiener, Norbert (2007). Cybernetics Or Control And Communication In The Animal And The Machine, Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ↑ Moss D (1999). "Biofeedback, mind-body medicine, and the higher limits of human nature" Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: a historical and biographical sourcebook, Westport, Conn: Prensa de madera verde. ↑ Lisina MI (1965). "The role of orientation in the transformation of involuntary reactions into voluntary ones" Orienting reflex and exploratory behavior, 339–44, Washington, DC: American Institute of Biological Studies. ↑ Kimmel HD (Mayo 1974). Instrumental conditioning of autonomically mediated responses in human beings. Am Psychol 29 (5): 325–35. ↑ Mandler, G, Mandler, JM, and Uviller, hora del Este. Autonomic feedback: The perception of autonomic activity. Revista de Psicología Social y Anormal. 1958, pp.56, 367-373. ↑ Shearn, DW. "Operant conditioning of heart rate" Ciencia 1962, 137, 530-531. ↑ Basmajian, J.V., De Luca, cj, Muscles Alive: Their Functions Revealed by Electromyography, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore: 1962 ↑ Shearn, D.W. "Operant analysis in psychophysiology" in Greenfield, N.S. and Sternbach, R.A., Eds., Handbook of Psychophysiology, Bosquecillo, Rinehart and Winston, Nueva York: 1972 ↑ Marrón, B.B. The Alpha Syllabus: A Handbook of Human EEG Alpha Activity, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd., Springfield, IL: 1974 ↑ Marrón, B.B. New Mind, New Body: Bio-feedback — New Directions for the Mind, Harper & Row, Nueva York: 1974; paperback edition by Bantam Books, 1975 ↑ Marrón, B.B. The Biofeedback Syllabus: A Handbook for the Psychophysiologic Study of Biofeedback, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd., Springfield, IL: 1975 ↑ Más completo, G. D., Biofeedback: Methods and Procedures in Clinical Practice, Biofeedback Institute of San Francisco, San Francisco: 1977 ↑ Marrón, B.B. Stress and The Art of Biofeedback, Harper & Row, Nueva York: 1977 ↑ Butler, F., Biofeedback: A survey of the literature, IFI/Plenum Data Company, Nueva York: 1978 ↑ Basmajian, J. V. (Ed.). (1979). Biofeedback: Principles and practice for clinicians. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. ↑ Peper, E., Ancoli, S., and Quinn, M., Eds., Mind/Body integration: Essential Readings in Biofeedback, Prensa Plenum, Nueva York: 1979 ↑ Olton, D. S., Noonberg, Un. R., Biofeedback: Clinical Applications in Behavioral Medicine, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 1980 ↑ Marrón, B.B. Supermind: The Ultimate Energy, Harper & Row, Nueva York: 1980; paperback edition by Bantam Books, 1983 ↑ Woolfolk, R. L., Lehrer, P. M., Principles and practice of stress management, The Guilford Press, Nueva York: 1984 ↑ Marrón, B.B. Between Health and Illness: New Notions on Stress and the Nature of Well Being, Houghton Mifflin, Nueva York: 1984; paperback edition by Bantam Books, 1985 ↑ Schwartz, M., Ed., Biofeedback: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press, Nueva York: 1987 ↑ Thompson, M. and Thompson, L. The neurofeedback book: An introduction to basic concepts in applied psychophysiology, The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Wheat Ridge, CO: 2003 ↑ Yucha, C., and Gilbert, C. Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback, The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Wheat Ridge, CO: 2004 ↑ Biofeedback tutor, Biosource Software, Kirksville, mes: 2010 Enlaces externos Wikimedia Commons tiene medios relacionados con: [[Commons: Categoría:Biofeedback | Biofeedback ]] Biofeedback at the Open Directory Project Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) Biofeedback Certification Institute of America (BCIA) Biofeedback Foundation of Europe (BFE) Psychotherapy Psychotherapy approaches Psychotherapeutic counseling Psychotherapeutic outcomes Psychotherapeutic processes Psychotherapeutic techniques Psychotherapeutic Issues Psychotherapeutic breakthrough Psychotherapeutic neutrality] Other aspects Psychotherapist attitudes Psychotherapists Psychotherapy training This box: view • talk • edit This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

Si quieres conocer otros artículos parecidos a Biofeedback puedes visitar la categoría Pages with script errors.

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada.


we use own and third party cookies to improve user experience More information