Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. Contents 1 Definition and scope 2 Ideology and methodology 3 Problemas 4 List of bioethicists 5 Ver también 6 Referencias 6.1 Muslim bioethics 6.2 Jewish bioethics 6.3 Christian bioethics 7 External links Definition and scope Bioethics concerns the ethical questions that arise in the relationships between biology, medicine, cibernética, política, ley, filosofía, and theology. Disagreement exists about the proper scope for the application of ethical evaluation to questions involving biology. Some bioethicists would narrow ethical evaluation only to the morality of medical treatments or technological innovations, and the timing of medical treatment of humans. Other bioethicists would broaden the scope of ethical evaluation to include the morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear and pain. Bioethics involves many public policy questions that are often politicized and used to mobilize political constituencies, hence the emergence of biopolitics and its techno-progressive/bioconservative axis. Por esta razón, some biologists and others involved in the development of technology have come to see any mention of "bioethics" as an attempt to derail their work and react to it as such, regardless of the true intent. Some biologists can be inclined to this line of thought, as they see their work as inherently ethical, and attacks on it as misguided. Ideology and methodology Bioethicists often focus on using philosophy to help analyze issues, and philosophical bioethicists such as Peter Singer tend to treat the field as a branch of moral or ethical philosophy. Sin embargo, this approach is sometimes challenged, and bioethics is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Many bioethicists come from backgrounds outside of academic philosophy, and some even claim that the methods of analytic philosophy have had a negative effect on the field's development. Religious bioethicists have developed rules and guidelines on how to deal with these issues from within the viewpoint of their respective faiths. Some Western secular bioethicists are critical of the fact that these are usually religious scholars without an academic degree or training in disciplines that pertain to the issues, such as philosophy (wherein the formal study of ethics is usually found), biology or medicine. Many religious bioethicists are Jewish or Christian scholars. However a growing number of religious scholars from other religions have become involved in this field as well. Islamic clerics have begun to write on this topic. Muslim bioethicists include Abdulaziz Sachedina, at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. There has been some criticism by liberal Muslims that only the more religiously conservative voices in Islam are being heard on this issue. In the case of most non-Western cultures a strict separation of religion from philosophy does not exist. In many Asian cultures, there is a lively (and often less dogmatic, but more pragmatic) discussion on bioethical issues. The discussion often refers to common demographic policies which are criticised, como en el caso de china. Buddhist bioethics, en general, is characterised by a naturalistic outlook that leads to a rationalistic, pragmatic approach. Buddhist bioethicists include Damien Keown. In Africa, and partly also in Latin America, the debate on bioethics frequently focus on its practical relevance in the context of underdevelopment and (national or global) power relations. Issues Bioethical issues include: Abortion Animal rights Antiretroviral drugs (prices in Africa) Artificial insemination Artificial life Artificial womb Assisted suicide Biopiracy Blood/blood plasma (trade) Brain-computer interface Chimeras Circumcision Cloning Confidentiality (medical records) Consent Contraception Cryonics Eugenics Euthanasia (humano, non-human animal) Feeding tube Gene therapy Genetically modified food Genomics Great Ape Project Human cloning Human genetic engineering Homosexuality Iatrogenesis Immortality Infertility (treatments) Life extension Life support Lobotomy Medical research Medical torture Moral obligation Morphological freedom Nanomedicine Organ donation (fair allocation, class and race biases) Pain management Parthenogenesis Patients' Bill of Rights Population control Prescription drugs (prices in the US prices) Procreative beneficence Procreative liberty Psychosurgery Recreational drug use Reproductive rights Reprogenetics Sperm and eggs (donation) Spiritual drug use Stem cell Suicide Surrogacy Transhumanism Transexuality Transplant trade List of bioethicists Abdulaziz Sachedina Arthur Caplan Bernard Nathanson Damien Keown James Hughes Leemon McHenry Andy Whipple James Rachels John A. Robertson Joseph Fletcher Julian Savulescu Leon Kass Peter Singer Ruth Faden See also Environmental ethics Neuroethics Nocebo Placebo Placebo (origins of technical term) Sexual ethics Utilitarian bioethics References Beauchamp, Tom L. and James F. Childress. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 5ª Ed. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195143329. Orr, Robert D. and Leigh B. Genesen. "Requests for inappropriate treatment based on religious beliefs" in Journal of Medical Ethics, Para.. 23, 1997. páginas. 142-147. Potter, Van Rensselaer. (1971). Bioética: Bridge to the Future. Englewood Cliffs, Nueva Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0130765058 Potter, Van Rensselaer. (1988). Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy. East Lansing. Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0870132644 Sloan, R.P., E. Bagiella and T. Powlell. "Religión, spirituality, y medicina" in The Lancet, 1999, 353(9153): 1-7. Stevin, Peter and Joe Stevens, "Detainees' Medical Files Shared Guantanamo Interrogators' Access Criticized" in Washington Post June 10, 2004, Page A01 Thomas, John. "Where Religious and Secular Ethics Meet" in Humane Health Care International, Para.. 12, No. 1, Enero 1996. Caputo, J. (1993) Against Ethics, Indiana University Press Muslim bioethics Al Khayat MH. "Health and Islamic behaviour" en: El Gindy AR, editor, Health policy, ethics and human values: Islamic perspective. Kuwait: Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences; 1995. p. 447-50. Ebrahim, Abul Fadl Mohsin. (1989). Aborto, Birth Control and Surrogate Parenting. An Islamic Perspective. Indianapolis. ISBN 0892590815 Esposito, John. (Ed.) (1995). "Surrogate Motherhood" in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (Vol. 4). Nueva York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195096150 Karic, Enes. "The Ethics of Cloning" in Islamica Magazine Fall/Winter 2004. Emitir #11 Jewish bioethics Bleich, J. David. (1981). Judaism and Healing. Nueva York: Ktav. ISBN 087068891X Dorff, Elliot N. (1998). Matters of Life and Death: A Jewish Approach to Modern Medical Ethics. Filadelfia: Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 0827606478 Feldman DM. (1974). Marital relations, birth control, and abortion in Jewish law. Nueva York: Schocken Books. Freedman B. (1999). Duty and healing: foundations of a Jewish bioethic. Nueva York: Routledge. ISBN 0415921791 Jakobovits I. (1959). Jewish Medical Ethics. Nueva York: Bloch Publishing. Mackler, Aaron L. (Ed.) (2000). Vida & Death Responsibilities in Jewish Biomedical Ethics. Nueva York: JTS. ISBN 0873340817. Maibaum M. "A 'progressive' Jewish medical ethics: notes for an agenda" in Journal of Reform Judaism 1986;33(3):27-33. Rosner, Fred. (1986). Modern medicine and Jewish ethics. Nueva York: Yeshiva University Press. ISBN 0881250910 Conservative Judaism Vol. 54(3), Primavera 2002 (contains a set of six articles on bioethics) Zohar, Noam J. (1997). Alternatives in Jewish Bioethics. Albany: Prensa de la Universidad Estatal de Nueva York. ISBN 0791432734 Christian bioethics Colson, Charles W. (Ed.) (2004). Human Dignity in the Biotech Century: A Christian Vision for Public Policy. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0830827838 Demy, Timothy J. and Gary P. Stewart. (1998). Suicidio: A Christian Response: Crucial Considerations for Choosing Life. Grand Rapids: Kregel. ISBN 0825423554 Pope John Paul II. (1995). Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life. Nueva York: Random House. ISBN 0812926714 Kilner, John et al. (1995). Bioethics and the Future of Medicine: A Christian Appraisal. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0802840817 Kilner, John F., Arlene B. Molinero, and Edmund D. Pellegrino (Eds.). (1996). Dignity and Dying: A Christian Appraisal. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co.; and Carlisle, Reino Unido: Paternoster Press. ISBN 0802842321 Meilaender, gilberto (2004). Bioética: A Primer For Christians. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0802842348 Pope Paul VI. (1968). Humanae Vitae: Human Life. Vatican City. Herrero, Wesley J. (2004). Consumer's Guide to A Brave New World. San Francisco: Encounter Books. ISBN 1893554996 Herrero, Wesley J. (2000). Culture of Death: The Assault on Medical Ethics in America. San Francisco: Encounter Books. ISBN 1893554066 Herrero, Wesley J. (1997). Forced Exit: The Slippery Slope from Assisted Suicide to Murder. Nueva York: Times Books. ISBN 0812927907 Stewart, Gary P. et al. (1998). Basic Questions on Suicide and Euthanasia: Are They Ever Right? BioBasics Series. Grand Rapids: Kregel. ISBN 0825430720 Stewart, Gary P. et al. (1998). Basic Questions on End of Life Decisions: How Do We Know What's Right? Grand Rapids: Kregel. ISBN 0825430704 External links All India Association of Bioethics American Journal of Bioethics American Society for Bioethics and Humanities Bioethics for clinicians: Islamic bioethics - Canadian Medical Association Journal Bioethics program at the University of Judaism, Los Angeles, California Bioethics and Sport Bioliberty: Proposal for the Declaration of Intelligent Beings' Rights Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity Center for Bioethics and Culture Network Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics Council for Responsible Genetics USA Eubios Ethics Institute JAPAN Hastings Center Human Genetics in Intercultural Perspective International Network for Life Studies Jewish bioethics on the web Jewish Bioethics from Jerusalem's Darche Noam Educational Institute Journal of the International Association of Bioethics Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal Mystical Bioethics Network National Catholic Bioethics Center National Institute of Health: Bioethics resources on the web Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud Pandas' Liberation Revisited Phoebe R. Berman Bioethics Institute Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Feminist Bioethics Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics U.S President's Council on Bioethics de:Bioethik fr:Bioéthique he:ביואתיקה Nl:Bio-ethiek pt:Bioética fi:Bioetiikka sv:Bioetik zh:生物倫理學 Esta página utiliza contenido con licencia Creative Commons de Wikipedia (ver autores).

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