Avoidant personality disorder

· Anxious [avoidant] personality disorder ICD-10 F606 ICD-9 301.82 OMIM [1] EnfermedadesDB [2] Medline Plus 000940 eMedicine ped/189 MeSH {{{Número de malla}}} Avoidant personality disorder (sometimes abbreviated APD or AvPD), or anxious personality disorder, is a cluster C personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and avoiding social interaction. People with avoidant personality disorder often consider themselves to be socially inept or personally unappealing, and avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed, humiliated, or disliked. They typically present themselves as loners, and report feeling a sense of alienation from society. Avoidant personality disorder usually is first noticed in early adulthood, and is associated with perceived or actual rejection by parent or peers during childhood. Whether the feeling of rejection is due to the extreme interpersonal monitoring attributed to people with the disorder is still an open question. Contenido 1 Criterios diagnósticos (DSM-IV-TR) 1.1 Mnemonic 2 Link with other mental disorders 3 Causas 4 Síntomas 5 Tratamiento 6 Natural course of the disorder 7 Ver también 8 References & Bibliography 9 Textos clave 9.1 Libros 9.2 Papeles 10 Material adicional 10.1 Libros 10.2 Papeles 11 External links Diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV-TR) The American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV-TR, un manual ampliamente utilizado para diagnosticar trastornos mentales, defines avoidant personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by 3 (o más) de los siguientes: Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing The abbreviated name of avoidant personality disorder, APD, is often confused with the abbreviated name of antisocial personality disorder; furthermore, clinically, the term 'anti-social' denotes sociopathy or psychopathy (not social inhibitions), and people with AvPD are 'asocial' (meaning that they avoid people altogether). Mnemonic A mnemonic that can be used to remember the criteria for avoidant personality disorder is AVOIDER. A – Avoids occupational activities. V – Views self as socially inept. O – Occupied with being criticized or rejected. I – Inhibited in new interpersonal situations. D – Declines to get involved with people. E – Embarrassed by engaging in new activities. R – Refrains from intimate relationships. Link with other mental disorders Research suggests that people with avoidant personality disorder, in common with social phobics, excessively monitor their own internal reactions when they are involved in social interaction. Sin embargo, unlike social phobic sufferers, they also excessively monitor the reactions of the people with whom they are interacting. The extreme tension created by this monitoring, may account for the hesitant speech and taciturnity of many people with avoidant personality disorder. They are so preoccupied with monitoring themselves and others that producing fluent speech is difficult. Avoidant personality disorder is reported to be especially prevalent in people with anxiety disorders, although estimates of comorbidity vary widely, due to differences in (entre otros) diagnostic instruments. Research suggests that approximately 10-50% of the people who have a panic disorder with agoraphobia have AvPD, as well as about 20-40% of the people who have a social phobia (social anxiety disorder). Some studies report prevalence rates of up to 45% among the people with a generalized anxiety disorder, and up to 56% of the people with an obsessive-compulsive disorder (Van Velzen, 2002). Although it is not mentioned in the DSM-IV, earlier theorists have proposed a personality disorder, which has a combination of features from borderline personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder, llamó "avoidant-borderline mixed personality" (AvPD/BPD) (Kantor, 1993, p.4). Causes The cause of avoidant personality disorder is not clearly defined, and may be influenced by a combination of social, genético, and biological factors. The disorder may be related to temperamental factors that are inherited. Específicamente, various anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence have been associated with a temperament characterized by behavioral inhibition, including features of being shy, fearful, and withdrawn in new situations. [1] Many people diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder have had painful early experiences of chronic parental criticism and rejection. The need to bond with the rejecting parents makes the avoidant person hungry for relationships, but their longing gradually develops into a defensive shell of self-protection against repeated parental criticisms. [2] Symptoms People with avoidant personality disorder are preoccupied with their own shortcomings and form relationships with others only if they believe they will not be rejected. Loss and rejection are so painful that these individuals will choose to be lonely rather than risk trying to connect with others. Hypersensitivity to criticism or rejection. Self-imposed social isolation. Extreme shyness in social situations, though strongly desire close relationships. [2] Avoid interpersonal relationships. Feelings of inadequacy. Low self-esteem. Mistrust of others. Extreme shyness/timidness. Emotional distancing related to intimacy. Highly self-conscious. Self-critical about their problems relating to others. Problems in occupational functioning. Lonely self-perception. Feeling inferior to others. Chronic substance abuse/dependence. [3] Creation of a fantasy world. Treatment Treatment of avoidant personality disorder can employ various techniques, such as social skills training, cognitive therapy, exposure treatment to gradually increase social contacts, group therapy for practicing social skills, and sometimes drug therapy (Comer, 1996). A key issue in treatment is gaining and keeping the client's trust, since people with AvPD will often start to avoid treatment sessions, if they distrust the therapist or fear rejection. The primary purpose of both, individual therapy and social skills group training, is for individuals with avoidant personality disorder to begin challenging their exaggeratedly negative beliefs about the self (Eckleberry, 2000). While not endorsed by the psychological community, a number of websites have appeared which purport to offer tips to people with avoidant personality disorder[Cómo hacer referencia y vincular a un resumen o texto]. The main idea, which runs through these websites, an idea with which the psychological community would agree, is that people diagnosed with AvPD have unrealistically negative views about themselves, and that challenging these beliefs is the first step to overcoming this affliction. Natural course of the disorder People with avoidant personality disorder often experience vicious cycles of withdrawal, in which the avoidant helps to create the anticipated rejection (Kantor, 1993, Capítulo 5). Other people interpret the avoidance of the person with APD as a sign that the avoidant does not like them, and react by avoiding the person. This reinforces an avoidant's fear of rejection and encourages further withdrawal. Another common development is the appearance of so-called "second-line defenses" in order to deal with the anxiety that the avoidance creates (ibid.). Examples of such defenses are a denial of the fear of rejection, or a replacement of their fear of rejection with a defensive insensitivity. The latter mechanism is called "hardening". Avoidant PD: History of the disorder Historical sources Famous clinicians Avoidant PD: Epidemiology Avoidant PD: Incidence Avoidant PD: Prevalence Avoidant PD: Morbidity Avoidant PD: Mortality Avoidant PD: Racial distribution Avoidant PD: Age distribution Avoidant PD: Sex distribution Avoidant PD: Risk factors Avoidant PD: Known evidence of risk factors Avoidant PD: Theories of possible risk factors Avoidant PD: Etiology Avoidant PD: Known evidence of causes Avoidant PD: Theories of possible causes Avoidant PD: Diagnosis & evaluation Avoidant PD: Psychological tests Avoidant PD: Assessment isssues Avoidant PD: Evaluation protocols Avoidant PD: Treatment outcome studies Avoidant PD: Treatment protocols Avoidant PD: Treatment considerations Avoidant PD: Evidenced based treatment Avoidant PD: Theory based treatment Avoidant PD: Team working considerations Avoidant PD: Followup Avoidant PD: For people with this difficulty Avoidant PD: Service user: How to get help Avoidant PD: Service user: Self help materials Avoidant PD: Service user: Useful reading Avoidant PD: Service user: Useful websites Avoidant PD: Service user: User feedback on treatment of this condition Avoidant PD: For their carers Avoidant PD: Cuidador: How to get help Avoidant PD: Cuidador: Useful reading Avoidant PD: Cuidador: Useful websites Instructions_for_archiving_academic_and_professional_materials Avoidant PD: Academic support materials Avoidant PD: Académico: Lecture slides Avoidant PD: Académico: Lecture notes Avoidant PD: Académico: Lecture handouts Avoidant PD: Académico: Multimedia materials Avoidant PD: Académico: Other academic support materials Avoidant PD: Académico: Anonymous fictional case studies for training Avoidant PD: For the practitioner Avoidant PD: Practitioner: Further reading Avoidant PD: Practitioner: Useful websites Avoidant PD: Anonymous fictional case studies for training See also Agoraphobia Attachment theory Dependent personality disorder Hermit Hikikomori Recluse Schizoid personality disorder Shyness Social anxiety Social phobia Solitude References & Bibliography ↑ (2006). Avoidant Personality Disorder Causes, Frequency, Siblings and Mortality - Morbidity. Avoidant Personality Disorder. Armenian Medical Network. URL a la que se accede en 2007-02-26. ↑ Saltar hasta: 2.0 2.1 (2003). Avoidant personality disorder. Avoidant personality disorder. Healthline Networks. URL a la que se accede en 2006-02-26. ↑ (2003). Avoidant personality disorder. Avoidant personality disorder. Gordon College - Barnesville, Georgia. URL a la que se accede en 2006-02-26. Key texts Books Kantor, M. (1993, revisado 2003). Distancing: A guide to avoidance and avoidant personality disorder. Westport, Conn: Editores de Praeger. Van Velzen, C. J. M. (2002). Social phobia and personality disorders: Comorbidity and treatment issues. Groningen: University Library Groningen. (online version) Papers Additional material Books Comer, R. J. (1996). Fundamentals of abnormal psychology. Avoidant personality disorder, pp.428-430. Third edition. Nueva York: Worth. Papers Google Scholar Rettew, CORRIENTE CONTINUA. (2006). "Avoidant Personality Disorder: Boundaries of a Diagnosis", Psychiatric Times, Julio 1, 2006 Eckleberry, Sharon C.. Dual Diagnosis and the Avoidant Personality Disorder. The Dual Diagnosis Pages: From Our Desk. URL a la que se accede en 2007-02-06. External links Terry Jones' website about APD Avoidant Personality Disorder Support Groups and Forums http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/Avoidant/ http://groups.msn.com/AvoidantPersonalityGroup/ http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/AvoidantSanctuary/ Psych Forums: Avoidant Personality Forum Information and Support at the Avoidant Personality Disorder Webpages http://www.AvoidantPersonality.com Personality Disorder Personality disorder | Psychopathy DSM-IV Personality Disorders Cluster A (Odd) - Schizotypal, Schizoid, Paranoid Cluster B (Dramatic) - Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic Cluster C (Anxious) - Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant Personality disorder not otherwise specified Assessing Personality Disorder MCMI | MMPI | Functional assessment Treating Personality Disorder DBT | TCC | Psicoterapia |Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy Prominent workers in Personality Disorder Millon | Linehan This box: view • talk • edit DSM-IV Personality Disorders edit Cluster A (Odd) - Schizotypal, Schizoid, Paranoid Cluster B (Dramatic) - Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic Cluster C (Anxious) - Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (ver autores).

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